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Research Strategies: Joining Deaf Educators Together Deaf Education Virtual Topical Seminars Donna M. Mertens Gallaudet University October 19, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Research Strategies: Joining Deaf Educators Together Deaf Education Virtual Topical Seminars Donna M. Mertens Gallaudet University October 19, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Strategies: Joining Deaf Educators Together Deaf Education Virtual Topical Seminars Donna M. Mertens Gallaudet University October 19, 2004

2 Oh OK I will add research to my list of things to do….

3 Major Themes Why we need good research and evaluation Why we need good research and evaluation Complexities that challenge us Complexities that challenge us Theoretical framework to guide our path: Shifting paradigms in disability community and in research community Theoretical framework to guide our path: Shifting paradigms in disability community and in research community Methodological ideas to address challenges Methodological ideas to address challenges

4 Why we need good research & evaluation We have a lot of challenges in deaf ed. We have a lot of challenges in deaf ed. We dont know everything we need to know. We dont know everything we need to know. It is required by the grant. It is required by the grant. We might even be able to document effective practices using technology to educate deaf and hard of hearing students and to prepare their teachers. We might even be able to document effective practices using technology to educate deaf and hard of hearing students and to prepare their teachers.

5 Complexities that challenge How can we incorporate Systematic, empirical methods Systematic, empirical methods Controls, random assignment Controls, random assignment Different conditions, evaluators, observers Different conditions, evaluators, observers Multiple measurements, observations, and studies Multiple measurements, observations, and studies When we have: Heterogeneous populations Heterogeneous populations Low-incidence/ Low-incidence/ geographic dispersion Little federal funding Little federal funding Unsophisticated designs Unsophisticated designs Few researchers Few researchers (Ferrell, et al., 2004)

6 Research Design

7 STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS Step 1: Identify own worldview Step 1: Identify own worldview Step 2: Problem sensing Step 2: Problem sensing Step 3: Literature review; research questions Step 3: Literature review; research questions Step 4: Identify design (quantitative/qualitative/mixed) Step 4: Identify design (quantitative/qualitative/mixed) Step 5: Identify/select sources of data Step 5: Identify/select sources of data Step 6: Identify/select data collection methods and instruments Step 6: Identify/select data collection methods and instruments Step 7: Data analysis, reporting, and utilization Step 7: Data analysis, reporting, and utilization Step 8: Identify future directions Step 8: Identify future directions

8 Paradigms, Disabilities, and Research & Evaluation People with disabilities have been framed using a variety of paradigms, including People with disabilities have been framed using a variety of paradigms, including The medical/deficit model The medical/deficit model The socio- cultural model The socio- cultural model Researchers and evaluators have used a variety of paradigms to conduct systematic inquires on/for/with people with disabilities Researchers and evaluators have used a variety of paradigms to conduct systematic inquires on/for/with people with disabilities The transformative paradigm is the approach that most closely parallels the socio- cultural view of people with disabilities, so we will focus on that paradigm. The transformative paradigm is the approach that most closely parallels the socio- cultural view of people with disabilities, so we will focus on that paradigm.

9 Characteristics of the Transformative Paradigm Central importance: lives and experiences of marginalized groups (e.g., women, minorities, people with disabilities, those who are poor) Central importance: lives and experiences of marginalized groups (e.g., women, minorities, people with disabilities, those who are poor) Analyzes asymmetric power relationships Analyzes asymmetric power relationships Links results of social inquiry to action Links results of social inquiry to action Use transformative theory to develop the program theory/evaluation Use transformative theory to develop the program theory/evaluationapproach

10 Step 2: Problem Sensing If a deficit paradigm is used to define the problem, it will look quite different than if a socio-cultural framework is used. If a deficit paradigm is used to define the problem, it will look quite different than if a socio-cultural framework is used. What does a research problem look like in a deficit paradigm? How would a socio- cultural paradigm re-frame the problem? What does a research problem look like in a deficit paradigm? How would a socio- cultural paradigm re-frame the problem? Raises issues of power Raises issues of power

11 Last 6 steps: Step 3: Literature review; research questions Step 3: Literature review; research questions Step 4: Identify design (quantitative/qualitative/mixed) Step 4: Identify design (quantitative/qualitative/mixed) Step 5: Identify and select sources of data Step 5: Identify and select sources of data Step 6: Identify and select data collection methods and instruments Step 6: Identify and select data collection methods and instruments Step 7: Data analysis, reporting, and utilization Step 7: Data analysis, reporting, and utilization Step 8: Identify future directions Step 8: Identify future directions

12 Step 4: Identify design (quantitative/qualitative/mixed) What is the independent variable? What is the independent variable? What is the intervention? What is the intervention? (Research = Intervention in a context with an expected outcome – what is your claim?) Who will you give the intervention to? Who will you give the intervention to? When will you give it to them? When will you give it to them? Is it possible to have a comparison group? Is it possible to have a comparison group?

13 LOGIC MODEL Longer term outcome (STRATEGIC AIM) Intermediate outcome Short term outcome CustomersOutputsActivities Resources/ Inputs WHYHOW PROGRAM RESULTS FROM PROGRAM EXTERNAL CONDITIONS INFLUENCING PERFORMANCE (+/-) A logic model is a diagram and text that describes/ illustrates the logical (causal) relationships among program elements and the problem to be solved, thus defining measurements of success.

14 Elements of the Logic Model 1.Resources/Inputs: Programmatic investments available to support the program. 2.Activities: Things you do– activities you plan to conduct in your program. 3.Outputs: Product or service delivery/implementation targets you aim to produce. 4.Customer: User of the products/services. Target audience the program is designed to reach. 5.Outcomes: Changes or benefits resulting from activities and outputs. Outcome Structure –Short-term – Changes in learning, knowledge, attitude, skills –Intermediate – Changes in behavior, practice or decisions –Long-term – Changes in condition 6.External Influences: Factors that will influence change in the affected community.

15 Benefits of Logic Modeling Communicates the performance story of the program or project. Focuses attention on the most important connections between actions and results. Builds a common understanding among staff and with stakeholders. Helps staff manage for results and informs program design. Finds gaps in the logic of a program and work to resolve them.

16 Step 5: Re-framing sampling with a transformative eye Myth of homogeneity Myth of homogeneity Understanding the dimensions of importance Understanding the dimensions of importance Theoretically important characteristics (e.g., trust) Theoretically important characteristics (e.g., trust) Impact of labels (at risk vs. resilience) Impact of labels (at risk vs. resilience) Barriers? Cultural appropriateness? Barriers? Cultural appropriateness?

17 Step 6: Reframing Data Collection with a Transformative Eye Mixed methods Mixed methods Benefits to/involvement with the community (social validation) Benefits to/involvement with the community (social validation) Appropriateness of methods Appropriateness of methods Build trust Build trust Data collection: Data collection: culturally appropriate Tie to social action Tie to social action

18 Action Research Resources Action Research – the journal d= Action Research – the journal d= d= d= Action research web sites: Action research web sites: Cornell site: Cornell site:

19 Worry about this later: Step 7: Data analysis, reporting, and utilization Step 7: Data analysis, reporting, and utilization Step 8: Identify future directions Step 8: Identify future directions What do you need to do now? Prepare a research proposal for your objective…. What??? Yeah, well, we said we would…


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