Presentation on theme: "John F. Kennedy 1960-1963. The Election of 1960 The election of 1960 was the closest since 1884; Kennedy defeated Richard Nixon by fewer than 119,000."— Presentation transcript:
John F. Kennedy
The Election of 1960 The election of 1960 was the closest since 1884; Kennedy defeated Richard Nixon by fewer than 119,000 votes. Clip Debate
Did You Know? He was a decorated naval officer in World War II. He received the Pulitzer Prize for his book, "Profiles in Courage." He served exactly 1,000 days in office. He was the first president born in the 20th century and the youngest president ever elected. He is the only Roman Catholic president He could read 1600 words a minute.
Kennedy’s Inaugural Address Kennedy was the youngest person ever to be elected president. His youth helped provide the theme to his inaugural address: “Let the word go forth… That the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans… The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it…And so, my fellow Americans-ask not what your country can do for you-ask what you can do for your country.” Ask not...speech
The Camelot Years With JFK’s youthful glamour and his talented advisors, the Kennedy White House reminded many of a modern- day Camelot, the mythical court of King Arthur.
Kennedy and the Cold War John Kennedy meeting with Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna, June, 1961 During the Kennedy Administration, ongoing tensions with the Soviet Union led to crises over Cuba and West Berlin. To contain communism and stay ahead of the Soviet Union in technology, President Kennedy created aid programs for developing nations and expanded the space program.
Crisis Over Cuba The first test of Kennedy’s foreign policy came in Cuba, just 90 miles off the coast of Florida. Revolutionary leader, Fidel Castro, openly declared himself a communist and welcomed aid from the Soviet Union.
The Bay of Pigs On the nights of April 17,1961, some 1500 Cuban exiles supported by the U.S. military landed on the island’s southern coast at Baja de Cochinos, the Bay of Pigs. The CIA and the exiles hoped it would trigger a mass uprising that would overthrow Castro. It didn’t! Cuban forces, backed by Soviet tanks and jet aircraft, easily repelled the exile invasion. Some of the exiles were killed, others imprisoned.
Cuban Missile Crisis In October, 1962, photographs taken by American planes revealed Soviet missile bases in Cuba-and some contained missiles ready to launch. They could reach U.S. cities in minutes. Kennedy Addresses the Nation
On October 22, Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba to prevent further deliveries of Soviet weapons. He also demanded that the Soviets remove the missiles. Khrushchev promised to challenge the blockade, calling it “outright banditry.”
For a few days, nuclear war and massive destruction was a distinct possibility for every American. In schools, children practiced air raid drills, a common occurrence during the Cold War. People who had built bomb shelters began stocking them with food and other provisions. Even the president called his family to the White House where they could be protected in the presidential nuclear shelter. Do it Yourself Fallout ShelterDo it Yourself Fallout Shelter
Suddenly, on October 24, many of the Soviet ships stopped short of the blockade line, turned, and sailed home. “We’re eyeball to eyeball,” said Secretary of State Dean Rusk, “and I think the other fellow just blinked.” On October 28 Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missile bases in response to Kennedy’s promise not to invade Cuba.
Kennedy and Berlin One of the high points of Kennedy’s foreign travels was a trip he made to Berlin in 1963 to dramatize America’s commitment to West Berlin and West Germany. In a speech at the Berlin Wall, Kennedy electrified an audience of about 150,000 Germans by stating, “Ich bin ein Berliner” (I am a Berliner), thus declaring the solidarity of all free people with the people of West Berlin. Ich bin ein Berliner Speech
Kennedy and the New Frontier Can Government Fix Society? President John F. Kennedy and President Lyndon B. Johnson supported programs intended to end poverty and racism at home and promote democracy abroad. The War on Poverty and the Great Society programs marked the greatest increase in the federal government’s role in society since the New Deal. Kennedy’s aid programs for developing nations also marked a dramatic shift in American foreign policy towards promoting economic development abroad. President Kennedy shakes hands with future President of the United States Bill Clinton
The New Frontier President Kennedy’s legislative program to provide medical care for the elderly…. To rebuild blighted urban areas….
To aid education…. To bolster the national defense….
To increase international aid…. To expand the space program. JFK and Moon Landing
And to promote civil rights. To provide volunteer assistance to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Warren Court Reforms Under Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Supreme Court issued a number of decisions that altered the voting system, expanded due process, and reinterpreted aspects of the First Amendment. A sampling of major decisions of the Warren Court Civil Rights Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional Due Process Mapp v. Ohio (1961) Ruled that unlawfully seized evidence cannot be used in a trial Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) Established suspect’s right to court-appointed attorney if suspects were unable to afford one Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) Affirmed right of the accused to an attorney during police questioning Miranda v. Arizona (1966) Required police to inform suspects of their rights during the arrest process Freedom of Speech and Religion Engel v. Vitale (1962) Banned state-mandated prayer in public schools Abington School District v. Schempp (1963) Banned state-mandated Bible reading in public schools
Tragedy in Dallas In the fall of 1963, public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights. On November 22, 1963, President and Mrs. Kennedy went to Texas to mend political fences with members of the state’s Democratic Party.
Crowds lined the streets of Dallas to greet the President. In front of them sat Texas Governor John Connally and his wife Nellie.
As the car approached a state building known as the Texas State Book Depository, rifle shots rang out.
Kennedy was shot in the head. His car raced to a nearby hospital, where doctors frantically tried to revive him, but it was too late. President Kennedy was dead. News of Kennedy Assassination
In 1963, the Warren Commission investigated and concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald had shot the president while acting on his own. Lee Harvey Oswald Chief Justice Earl Warren presenting the Warren Report to President Johnson
On Sunday, Nov. 24, as millions watched live television coverage of Oswald being transferred between jails, a nightclub owner named Jack Ruby broke through the crowd and shot and killed Oswald. Jack Ruby is Shot