2The Election of 1960 The election of 1960 was the closest since 1884; Kennedydefeated RichardNixon by fewer than119,000 votes.Clip Debate
3Did You Know?• He was a decorated naval officer in World War II. • He received the Pulitzer Prize for his book, "Profiles in Courage." • He served exactly 1,000 days in office. • He was the first president born in the 20th century and the youngest president ever elected.He is the only RomanCatholic presidentHe could read words a minute.
4Kennedy’s Inaugural Address Kennedy was the youngest person ever to be elected president. Hisyouth helped provide the theme to his inaugural address:“Let the word go forth…That the torch has beenpassed to a newgeneration of Americans…The energy, the faith, thedevotion which we bringto this endeavor will lightour country and all whoserve it…And so, my fellowAmericans-ask not whatyour country can do foryou-ask what you can dofor your country.”Ask not...speech
5The Camelot Years With JFK’s youthful glamour and his talented advisors, theKennedy WhiteHouse remindedmany of a modern-day Camelot, themythical court ofKing Arthur.
6Kennedy and the Cold War During the Kennedy Administration, ongoing tensions with the Soviet Union led to crises over Cuba and West Berlin. To contain communism and stay ahead of the Soviet Union in technology,President Kennedy created aid programs for developing nations and expandedthe space program.John Kennedy meeting with Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna, June, 1961
7Crisis Over Cuba The first test of Kennedy’s foreign policy came in Cuba,just 90 miles off the coast ofFlorida. Revolutionary leader,Fidel Castro, openly declaredhimself a communist andwelcomed aid from theSoviet Union.
8The Bay of Pigs On the nights of April 17,1961, some 1500 Cuban exiles supported by the U.S. militarylanded on the island’ssouthern coast at Baja deCochinos, the Bay of Pigs. TheCIA and the exiles hoped itwould trigger a mass uprisingthat would overthrow Castro.It didn’t! Cuban forces, backedby Soviet tanks and jet aircraft,easily repelled the exile invasion.Some of the exiles were killed,others imprisoned.
9Cuban Missile Crisis In October, 1962, photographs taken by American planesrevealed Sovietmissile bases inCuba-and somecontained missilesready to launch.They could reachU.S. cities inminutes.Kennedy Addresses the Nation
10On October 22,Kennedy ordereda naval blockadeof Cuba to preventfurther deliveriesof Soviet weapons.He also demandedthat the Sovietsremove the missiles.Khrushchev promised tochallenge the blockade,calling it “outright banditry.”
11For a few days, nuclear war and massive destruction was a distinct possibility for every American. In schools, childrenpracticed air raid drills, a common occurrence during the ColdWar. People who had built bomb shelters began stockingthem with food and other provisions. Even the president calledhis family to the White House where they could be protected inthe presidential nuclear shelter. Do it Yourself Fallout Shelter
13Suddenly, on October 24, many of the Soviet ships stopped short of the blockade line, turned, and sailed home. “We’re eyeball toeyeball,” said Secretary of State Dean Rusk, “and I think theother fellow just blinked.” On October 28 Khrushchev agreedto dismantle the missile bases in response to Kennedy’s promisenot to invade Cuba.
14Kennedy and Berlin One of the high points of Kennedy’s foreign travels was a trip hemade to Berlin in 1963to dramatize America’scommitment to WestBerlin and West Germany.In a speech at the BerlinWall, Kennedy electrifiedan audience of about 150,000Germans by stating , “Ich binein Berliner” (I am a Berliner),thus declaring the solidarity ofall free people with the peopleof West Berlin.Ich bin ein Berliner Speech
15Kennedy and the New Frontier Can Government Fix Society?President John F. Kennedy andPresident Lyndon B. Johnsonsupported programs intendedto end poverty and racism athome and promote democracyabroad. The War on Povertyand the Great Society programsmarked the greatest increase inthe federal government’s rolein society since the New Deal.Kennedy’s aid programs fordeveloping nations also markeda dramatic shift in Americanforeign policy towards promotingeconomic development abroad.President Kennedy shakes hands with future President of the United States Bill Clinton
16The New Frontier President Kennedy’s legislative program to provide medical carefor the elderly….To rebuild blightedurban areas….
17To aid education….To bolster the nationaldefense….
18To increaseinternational aid….To expand the spaceprogram.JFK and Moon Landing
19To provide volunteerassistance to developingnations in Asia, Africa,and Latin America.And to promote civil rights.
20Warren Court Reforms A sampling of major decisions of the Warren Court Under Chief Justice Earl Warren,the Supreme Court issued a numberof decisions that altered the votingsystem, expanded due process, andreinterpreted aspects of the FirstAmendment.A sampling of major decisions of the Warren CourtCivil RightsBrown v. Board of Education (1954) Declared segregation in public schools unconstitutionalDue ProcessMapp v. Ohio (1961) Ruled that unlawfully seized evidence cannot be used in a trialGideon v. Wainwright (1963) Established suspect’s right to court-appointed attorney ifsuspects were unable to afford oneEscobedo v. Illinois (1964) Affirmed right of the accused to an attorney during policequestioningMiranda v. Arizona (1966) Required police to inform suspects of their rights during thearrest processFreedom of Speech and ReligionEngel v. Vitale (1962) Banned state-mandated prayer in public schoolsAbington School District v. Schempp (1963) Banned state-mandated Bible reading in public schools
21Tragedy in DallasIn the fall of 1963, public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights. On November 22,1963, President andMrs. Kennedy wentto Texas to mendpolitical fences withmembers of thestate’s DemocraticParty.
22Crowds lined thestreets of Dallasto greet thePresident. In frontof them sat TexasGovernor JohnConnally and hiswife Nellie.
23As the car approached a state building known as the Texas State Book Depository, rifle shots rang out.
24Kennedy wasshot in the head.His car raced toa nearbyhospital, wheredoctorsfrantically triedto revive him,but it was toolate. Presidentdead.News of Kennedy Assassination
25Commission investigated and concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald In 1963, the WarrenCommission investigatedand concluded thatLee Harvey Oswaldhad shot the presidentwhile acting on his own.Lee Harvey OswaldChief Justice Earl Warren presenting the Warren Report to President Johnson
26On Sunday, Nov. 24,as millions watchedlive televisioncoverage of Oswaldbeing transferredbetween jails, anightclub ownernamed Jack Rubybroke through thecrowd and shot andkilled Oswald.Jack Ruby is Shot