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Ballast Basics II Presented by: Your Name HERE

Topic Outline Advanced Ballast Definitions Standards & Regulations
Power Factor, THD, Starting Temperatures, Remote Mounting, & Shut Down Circuits Standards & Regulations UL Listed & DOE Lighting Retrofits & Energy Savings HID & T5HO Examples Controllable Lighting for Energy Management Dimming Technology

Above .90 ls ‘HIGH’ Power Factor (Highest Possible is 1.0)
Power Factor indicates how efficiently the power from the utility is being utilized. The higher the power factor, the less current is needed to provide the same amount of power. A high power factor ballast allows for more ballasts on a circuit. Also, utilities have penalties for facilities with low power factors since it requires more current to be generated. The formal equation: PF = Actual Power (Watts)/Apparent Power (Volts x Amps) Example: 120 Watts of 120V with PF = Input Current = 1 amp 120 Watts of 120V with PF = Input Current = 1.66 amps - More current required for the same power Some utility companies penalize their customers for power factors below .85 . Above .90 ls ‘HIGH’ Power Factor (Highest Possible is 1.0)

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
THD is a measurement of the harmonic content in the current a piece of equipment draws from the power line. Current may be drawn at the fundamental frequency (60Hz) or combined with harmonic currents which are multiples of the fundamental, i.e. 180Hz, 300Hz, and 420Hz (3rd, 5th and 7th harmonics). Increased temperatures and interference can greatly shorten the life of electronic equipment. High Harmonic Values: Result in large neutral currents in 3-phase Systems Potential for overheating neutral conductors Cause Voltage distortion problems In the example shown, the wave shapes are that of a pure 60Hz sine wave (0% THD) and one of an input current that has 17% THD. The higher the distortion value, the more the two wave shapes become dissimilar.

Total Harmonic Distortions (THD)
System Retrofit Analysis with effect on THD Lighting System Before Retrofit: 2 lamp magnetic ballast with F34T12 lamps Ballast THD = 20%, Watts = 74W, I = .65A Harmonic Current  .20 x .65 =.13A New Electronic Lighting System after Retrofit: 2 lamp Electronic ballast with F32T8 lamps THD = 20%, Watts = 51W, I = .44A Harmonic Current  .20 x .44 =.088A This Retrofit with an Electronic Ballast Provides approximately a 32% Reduction in Harmonic Current and in Power consumption.

THD: Typical Values Typical Values for THD include:
Electro Magnetic Ballasts: Less than 30% ANSI Ballast Requirement: Less than 32% Universal’s HP Family: Less than 10% Typical screw-in CFL’s: Greater than 100% Typical specified THD Levels are either less than 10% or less than 20%. Requirements for ballasts to meet ANSI requirements allows for THD values to be just less than 32%. The industry standard for THD is <20%. However, some mfrs. will push <10% THD because they do not offer a full product line.

Starting Temperatures
Minimum temperature starting is both ballast and lamp dependent. See ballast label for specifics (standard is 50°F for most magnetic ballasts). Energy saving lamps do not function well below 60°F, including the newer 25, 28, and 30-Watt T8 lamps. Remote mounting increases the minimum starting temperature. Most electronic ballasts are designed for -20°F starting. Magnetic High Output: -20°F. In low temperature applications, it is important for the lamps to heat up to generate sufficient light output. Lamp Jackets are typically used in these applications so that the heat that the lamp generates is used to heat the lamp rather than to dissipate into the outside air.

Remote Mounting Ballasts are limited in how far they can be mounted from the lamps they are operating. For Electromagnetic ballasts, larger gauge wire is necessary to compensate for voltage drops from the leads. For Electronic ballasts, high frequency interactions between the leads and conduit reduce the ballast output voltage. For electronic ballasts, a maximum distance is specified by the ballast manufacturer. Remote Mounting Distance Definition: Maximum allowable length of the ballast lead wire from the ballast to the lampholder. Typical remote mounting distances: Instant Start: 18’ Programmed Start 1 & 2 lamp: 20’ Programmed Start 3 & 4 lamp: 12’ When operating energy saving lamps: 6’ Dimming Ballasts: 8’ Consult specification sheets for specific ballasts.

Shut Down Circuits End of Lamp Life (EOL)
When lamps with a bulb diameter of T5 or less are operated on high frequency electronic ballasts without EOL sensing circuitry, one or both of the following scenarios may occur at end-of-lamp-life: 1. Glass cracking near lamp base (The filament opens and touches the glass) 2. Overheating or melting of lamp base or socket (Lamp rectifies and generates significant heat at the filaments and socket) Many ballasts now include shutdown circuits that sense when the lamp is at its end-of-life and will shut down power to the lamps to prevent the undesirable failure modes.

UL is Required for US Market – CSA or cULus for Canada.
UL Listed Underwriters Laboratory UL 935: Ballast Standard Safety Requirement Assure proper ratings on labels Lamps – denotes which lamps are approved for use Input current ratings Input & Output Voltages Requires passing of various tests for safe operation, including…. Faults are induced within the ballast to confirm that the ballast fails safely Tests for shock hazard potential during lamp replacements Confirms case temperatures are within limits Requires 100% production tests for insulation/isolation from internal components and lead wires UL is Required for US Market – CSA or cULus for Canada.

Regulations DOE Ruling in 2005
Defined Minimum Ballast Efficacy (BEF) levels for high power factor ballasts. Affected ballasts for the following applications: One and two lamp F40T12 and two lamp F96T12 (120 & 277 volts) These new BEF Limits are higher than capable with magnetic ballasts which will speed the conversion to electronic ballasts for the lighting industry. Ballasts listed for operating only the energy saving lamps are exempt (F34T12 lamps) . Two lamp F96T12/HO These BEF limits can still be met with energy saving magnetic ballasts. Implementation dates varied for ballast sales to different channels. Fixture manufacturers (OEM’s) July 1, 2005 Electrical Distributors (Replacement) July 1, 2010 Ballasts excluded from this law include the following: Low Power Factor (<.90) and labeled “For residential use only” Dimming ballasts F96T12/HO Ballasts designed for –20° F or less and for use in outdoor signs Ballasts for F32T8 lamps Ballasts for F34T12 lamps without F40T12 lamps on the label ( this loophole was closed in 2009). In July 2010, replacement magnetic ballasts were no longer available from manufacturers for the high volume T12 applications.

Regulations New DOE Ruling for 2014
New DOE Linear Fluorescent Efficiency Standard: January 13, became law. November all manufacturers must comply. Defined stricter minimum efficiencies using BLE* Affects nearly all non-dimming ballasts for linear lamps in V range Commercial IS/RS/PS ballasts that operate 4’ linear, 2’ U-bent, 8’ slimline, or 8’ HO lamps Sign ballasts Residential IS/RS/PS ballasts that operate 4’ linear, 2’ U-bent, or 8’ slimline lamps Ballasts excluded from these requirements: 347V and 480V Export Dimming ballasts T8 ballasts for EMI- sensitive environments Low ballast factor PS ballasts for 4’ T8 lamps *BLE is ballast luminous efficiency and will replace BEF as lamp efficiency measurement in 2014.

Retrofit Energy Savings
Ballast Retrofits Retrofit Energy Savings Electronic ballasts are commonly used in lighting retrofits where magnetic ballasts with T12 lamps are removed from lighting fixtures and replaced with electronic ballasts and T8 lamps. The key reason for this is the significant financial savings that result from these energy saving retrofits although there are numerous other lighting benefits that are achieved. To Calculate the financial savings, the following information is needed. - Existing lighting fixture’s input power - Replacement system’s input power - Annual hours of operation - Utility rate - Quantity of lighting fixtures Input power values are available from ballast manufacturers’ catalogs or specification sheets.

Retrofit Energy Saving Equations:
Ballast Retrofits Retrofit Energy Saving Equations: Energy Savings = Existing Wattage – New Wattage kW Savings = Energy Savings ÷ 1,000 kWH Savings = (kW Savings) x (Annual Operating Hours) Annual Utility Savings: Energy Savings (Watts) x Annual Operating Hours x Utility rate (\$/kWH)  1000 (for conversion of units) Annual Utility savings ( \$’s)

Retrofit Example Continued…
Ballast Retrofits Retrofit Example Continued… Maximize energy savings by not over-lighting an area!

Retrofit Wiring Connection - Electromagnetic to Electronic
Ballast Retrofits Retrofit Wiring Connection - Electromagnetic to Electronic Magnetic Rapid Start to Electronic Programmed Rapid Start: No wiring changes for 1 & 2 lamp models. 3 & 4 lamp models will combine lamp pairs. Two wires connect to each lamp socket. Magnetic Rapid Start to Electronic Instant Start: Simple wiring changes. Lampholders are effectively shorted out. Fewer connections than rapid start wiring.

Rapid Start to Instant Start Wiring – 2 Lamp:
Ballast Retrofits Rapid Start to Instant Start Wiring – 2 Lamp: Blue Red Yellow BALLAST Line Existing leads are tied together and connected to new ballast leads which connects both sides of a filament with itself for proper operation. Magnetic T12 Rapid Start Wiring Blue Red BALLAST Line Yellows Reds Blues Electronic T8 Instant Start Wiring

Rapid Start to Instant Start Wiring – 4 Lamp:
Ballast Retrofits Rapid Start to Instant Start Wiring – 4 Lamp: Blue Yellow BALLAST Line Yellows Reds Blues Red Existing lead pairs from the magnetic ballasts are tied together and connected to a single lead of the same color from new electronic ballast. One four lamp electronic ballast can replace two 2-lamp magnetic ballasts. Lamps from 1stmagnetic ballast Lamps from 2ndmagnetic ballast

Magnetic High Bay HID Lighting
HID Lighting Issues: High energy consumption Better than incandescent, but they still use significant amounts of power. Cannot provide immediate light Lamps do not light instantly but will take a few minutes to attain full brightness. HID lamps cannot effectively connect to occupancy sensors because of the warm-up and re-strike delays. Magnetic HID ballasts generate noise Not conducive to many applications. Poor lumen maintenance HID lamps significantly decrease in lumen output over time. 65% Lumens at 40% of rated life. Poor Color Rendering Index (CRI) values Low CRI values reduces the color quality of the light. HID lamps color vary over time from lamp to lamp. Most HID High Bay fixture efficiencies are poor, < 80% Fixtures do not effectively reflect light out.

HID Alternative Lighting Solutions:
High Lumen Fluorescent HID Alternative Lighting Solutions: Energy efficient Over 30% saving in utility costs over magnetic HID. Instant on with no warm-up time Lamps fire immediately with no warm-up time. Compatible with occupancy sensors for maximum energy savings since there are no warm-up or re-strike delays. Quiet operation Sound rated A, ideal for retail, schools, etc. Excellent lumen maintenance 90-95% Lumens at 40% rated life. Light levels remain fairly consistent over time. Excellent color CRI values typically 75 to 85. No color variance or shift over time. Fixture efficiencies are greater than 90% New High Bay fluorescent fixtures are extremely efficient compared to the common HID High Bay fixtures. Applications: Warehouses Gymnasiums Big Box Retail Industrial

High Bay Applications:
High Lumen Fluorescent High Bay Applications: Note: Fluorescent lamps are very temperature dependent while HID lamps provide fairly constant light output across all temperatures. Fluorescent lamps have identified ambient temperatures where they provide maximum light output. For extreme cold temperatures, fluorescent lamps might not be suitable unless the lamp is jacketed or the fixture is designed to retain heat. T5HO Optimal Temperature 35°C (95°F) Ambient T8 Optimal Temperature 25°C (77°F) Ambient

T5HO High Bay Fluorescent
T5HO Lamps (F54T5HO): Provide the most light with the fewest lamps 4-Lamp T5HO fixtures are frequently used to replace Watt Metal Halide HID fixture. 6-Lamp T5HO fixtures increase light levels but still save energy over 400 Watt fixtures. Programmed Start products available Ideal for use with occupancy sensors Maximizes lamp life in frequently switched applications T5HO Lamps are at maximum light levels in 35°C (95°F) ambient temperatures Ballasts are available for 120, 277, 347, and 480 volt applications

Light Output over Time:
HID to T5HO Lumen Comparisons Light Output over Time: 400 Watt Metal Halide fixtures start with the highest delivered lumens but due to poor lumen maintenance, their light levels drop off significantly over time. 4-Lamp and 6-Lamp T5HO fixtures light levels remain fairly constant and at the same time operate with lower input Watts Delivered system lumens uses HID fixture efficiency of .80 & Fluorescent fixture of .92 Less lumen depreciation allows for better designs for specific applications.

T5HO Retrofit Example Warehouse Conversion: HID to Electronic T5HO:
Additional Benefits: Improved lighting Uniform illumination Color Less glare Instant-on capabilities Ability to control lamps with occupancy sensors Reduction of 48,488 Kilowatts Before After

T8 High Bay Fluorescent T8 Lamps (F32T8)
Most common lamp for electronic ballasts. This same lamp is probably used elsewhere in the same facility. Variety of lamp options available. Colors, CRI’s, life ratings, energy saving lamp options, etc. Instant Start and Programmed Start high ballast factor ballasts used for High Lumen applications. Ballast Factor of 1.18 to maximize light output from the lamp. T8 Lamps are at Maximum light output at 25°C (77°F) ambient temperature. Ballasts are available for 120, 277, 347, and 480 volt applications.

Light Output over Time:
HID to T8 Lumen Comparisons Light Output over Time: 400 Watt Metal Halide fixtures start with the highest delivered lumens but due to poor lumen maintenance, light levels drop off significantly over time. 4-Lamp and 6-Lamp T8 fixtures light levels remain fairly constant and at the same time, operate with lower input Watts. 6-Lamp fixtures are the common T8 replacement of 400 Watt MH HID fixtures. Delivered system lumens uses HID fixture efficiency of .80 & Fluorescent fixture of .92 6-Lamp T8 provides lower initial lumens but higher maintained lumens.

T8 Retrofit Example Gymnasium conversion from HID to Electronic T8:
Additional Benefits: Quiet operation Improved color Instant-on Ability to control lamps with occupancy sensors \$0.10

Controllable Lighting for Energy Management
Daylight Harvesting Use of skylights and windows allows for natural light to be incorporated as a lighting source. Dim lights to save energy when natural light is available. Scheduling Control power and light levels automatically. Reduce levels when allowable to maximize energy savings. Peak Load Reduction Enable lighting for use to control peak energy consumption. Incorporate lighting controls to allow for Demand Response events and other utility programs.

Light Level Switching Light Level switching from 100% power to 50%
Meets switching requirements (ASHRAE90.1, Title 24, etc.) Provides even illumination in the fixture Aesthetically pleasant looking Inboard/Outboard switching creates dark spots and uneven illumination Incorporates standard wall switches to command the ballast Very intuitive and user friendly White Ballast Input Both Switches in OFF position 0% Power One Switch ON 50% Power Both Switches ON 100% Power S1 Black S2 Black

Analog Dimming SuperDim™ 0-10 volt analog dimming ballasts operate with industry standard 0 to 10V dimming controls. Every ballast connected to the same low voltage control will dim to the same level. SuperDim™ Ballasts feature: Architectural Dimming levels 100% - 3%: Compact fluorescent lamps 100%-1%: T8, T5 and T5HO linear lamps Universal input voltage ( volts) Programmed rapid start technology Ideal for applications where preset lighting is desired THD <10%

Digital Dimming Technology
Ballasts, Modules, and Controls are factory assigned with their own unique digital address. Digital commands are communicated from wall controls to all components on the lighting circuit via a 2-wire control loop. Digital addresses allow for communication to specific components on the control loop. Signals from standard 2-wire analog and 3-wire control technologies effect all components connected to the control loop. Digital control of ballasts eliminates the need for dimmer panels with fluorescent lighting. The ballast utilizes microprocessors to read commands and control current levels going to the lamps. DALI (Digital Addressable Lighting Interface) is the Industry Standard.

Digital Dimming Ballasts
DaliPRO® ballasts are designed for use in systems that utilize DALI compatible controls or building management systems. With DaliPro™ ballasts as part of a networked lighting system, maximum lighting control is available. DaliPRO® features: Digital Addressable Lighting Interface (DALI) Industry standard protocol for digital dimming. For use with DALI compatible controls Numerous manufacturers with products. Architectural Dimming levels 100% - 3%: Compact fluorescent lamps. 100%-1%: T8, T5 and T5HO linear lamps. Variety of applications Single rooms with wall controls. Networked facilities with Building Management Systems. Full line of CFL, T5, T5HO & T8 ballasts available

Demand Control Lighting
Communicates to the ballasts over the power line Wireless: removes the requirement to run control wires to each fixture Controls are connected adjacent to the lighting panel Retrofit or new construction applications Designed for use as part of an energy savings strategy for lighting Power level ranges from 100% to at least 50% Not designed for architectural dimming Control options still evolving Local computer control Daylight harvesting Incorporate with a Building automation/ Energy management system Ideal for implementation with a Demand Response System