Presentation on theme: "Single-Use Cameras References:"— Presentation transcript:
1Single-Use Cameras References: 18.104.22.168. Wheelwright, S.C. and Clark, K.B. (1995) Leading Product Development, Free Press, New York.5. Alexander, B. (1993) Kodak Fun Saver Camera Recycling, Society of Plastics Engineers Recycling Conference - Survival Tactics thru the '90's, Chicago, IL, June 14-16, pp6. Scheuring, J. F., Bras, B. and Lee, K.-M. (1994) Effects of Design for Disassembly on Integrated Disassembly and Assembly Processes, Proceedings Fourth International Conference on Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Automation Technology, Troy, NY, October, pp
2First to MarketFuji introduced QuickSnap 35mm single-use camera in the U.S. market in 1987.Kodak, which did not have a single-use camera of its own, was caught unprepared.The single-use camera market grew by more than 50 percent per year for the next 8 years:In 1988, 3 million single-use cameras were soldBy 1994, over 43 million were sold
3Kodak’s Response to Fuji Kodak introduced its first model over a year laterFuji had already developed a second model, the QuickSnap FlashKodak had experimented with single-use cameras:Early version introduced in mid-1980’s produced blurred pictures and had many quality problems.Kodak prided itself on excellent film quality; putting film into an inexpensive, plastic, single-use camera could result in second-rate photographs and hurt Kodak.Feared single-use cameras would cannibalize film sales whose gross margins were very high (80%).
4Kodak’s Platform Approach From April 1989 and July 1990,Kodak redesigned its basemodel and introducedthree additionalmodelsBecause of their platform strategy, Kodak was able to develop its products faster and more cheaply, delivering twice as many products as FujiBy 1994, Kodak had captured more than 70% of the U.S. market.
5Kodak Improves Recyclability Initially called “Kodak Fling” cameras, single-use cameras viewed as “disposables” or “throwaways”This upset many environmental groups, calling the cameras “ecologically offensive”.In , a massive redesign effort began to facilitate recycling and part reuseIntegrated design, development, manufacturing, business, and environmental personnelNew designs were easier to disassemble, inspect, reuse, and reload
6Single-Use Camera Recycling Single-use cameras have since become the cornerstone in Kodak’s efforts in recycle, reuse, and remanufacture.70% recycle rate in US60% rate worldwideA single-use camera can be returned to the shelf in 30 days after collected from a developerper (an Alum can takes ~60 days)
7Single-Use Camera Recycling Exchange partnerships have been established with Fuji, Konica, and other single-use camera manufacturersBy weight, 77-86% of a Kodaksingle use camera can be reused or recycledKodak now provides the best example of “closed-loop” recycling in the world.
8Single-Use Camera Lifecycle Step 1Camera is manufactured and loaded with unexposed film which is pre-wound from the cartridge into a roll in the camera.Step 2Consumer purchases and uses camera, winding film back into the cartridge one frame at a time as photographs are taken.Step 3Consumer returns entire camera to a photo-finisher for processing.
9Single-Use Camera Lifecycle (cont.) Step 4.Photofinisher removes the battery and film cartridge and develops the pictures.Camera body is returned to the manufacturer for reuse and recycling.Manufacturer pays photofinisher a small fee for each camera returned as incentive to recycle.Battery is reused by another industry since it still has over half of its useful life remaining.
10Single-Use Camera Lifecycle (cont.) Step 5.Manufacturer removes lenses and external enclosures for regrind with to raw materials.Internal camera body and mechanism assembly is inspected and re-used, and new film, a battery, lenses and outer covers are added to make a “new” single use camera ready for sale.
11“Closed-Loop” Recycling Program Step 1Step 2Step 5Step 4Step 3
12Component Recycling and Reuse Covers:The polystyrene covers of the Kodak Fun Saver pocket cameras (both flash and daylight models) are ground up and recycled into covers for new cameras.The paperboard outer shell of Fun Saver 35, Fun Saver panoramic and Fun Saver telefoto 35 cameras is made of recycled material.The polycarbonate shell of the Fun Saver Weekend 35 camera models is ground up and sold to make non-photographic products.Label:On the Kodak Fun Saver models, the graphic label is ground up during the recycling of the outer covers.
13Component Recycling and Reuse Film:After removing the Kodak film for processing, the photofinisher has the option of returning the camera to Kodak for recycling and reuse.Since retailers and photofinishers play a key role in this recycling process, they are reimbursed for each camera returned and shipping costs.Lens:To ensure optical purity, the camera receives a new lens each time it is recycled.Used lenses are ground up and sold to outside companies as raw materials for other products.
14Component Recycling and Reuse Camera Mechanism:The chassis, basic camera mechanism and electronic flash system are tested, inspected and reused.Viewfinder:The viewfinder is re-ground and recycled into new internal camera parts.Battery:Kodak donates any returned batteries to charity or the photofinisher may reuse them.
15Component Recycling and Reuse Parts of the cameras that don't pass inspection are simply ground up and fed into the raw material stream for molding into new cameras.
16Initial Kodak FunSaverTM Design How do Kodak’s new cameras compare to the original design?You will investigate this as part of the in-class lab by dissecting an old camera and one of the newer models