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Chapter 15 Extremity Injuries.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Extremity Injuries."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 Extremity Injuries

2 Extremity Injuries Injuries to the extremities are common because people are involved in active lifestyles that include sports and wilderness activities.

3 Extremity Injury Assessment
Look for Examine the extremities using Compare Use Consider the

4 Types of Extremity Injuries (1 of 2)
Contusions Strains Sprains

5 Types of Extremity Injuries (2 of 2)
Tendonitis Dislocations Fractures

6 Care for Extremity Injuries

7 RICE Procedures (1 of 7) Acronym Recommended The first

8 RICE Procedures (2 of 7) R = .

9 RICE Procedures (3 of 7) I

10 RICE Procedures (4 of 7) C

11 RICE Procedures (5 of 7) E

12 RICE Procedures (6 of 7) R = I = .

13 RICE Procedures (7 of 7) C = E =

14 Shoulder Dislocation Occurs Result of Second in

15 Recognizing a Shoulder Dislocation (1 of 2)
Victim holds Arm cannot Extreme Shoulder appears

16 Recognizing a Shoulder Dislocation (2 of 2)
Injury results in. History of Numbness or paralysis

17 Care for a Shoulder Dislocation
Do not Place a Apply Apply. Seek

18 Clavicle Fracture Common Usually result of Most occur in the

19 Recognizing a Clavicle Fracture (1 of 2)
Fell on Direct Severe Holding injured arm

20 Recognizing a Clavicle Fracture (2 of 2)
No movement

21 Care for a Clavicle Fracture
Treat for Apply and swathe. Apply ice pack: ___ minutes, __to __times during 24 hours Seek _______medical care.

22 Contusions Caused by Often called

23 Recognizing Contusions
Pain at Feeling of Black-and-blue discolorations

24 Care for Contusions Apply an ice pack: Place arm in sling and swathe.

25 Tendonitis _________of the shoulder Result of

26 Recognizing Tendinitis
Constant or Limited _____of shoulder “_______” sound _________over the area

27 Care for Tendonitis Use an ice massage for __ minutes before and after exercise. Use a Use pain medication. Seek medical advice.

28 Humeral Fracture Shaft of the humerus can be

29 Recognizing a Humerus Fracture
Direct blow Twist or fall Severe Deformity Tender if touched Inability Holds

30 Care for a Humerus Fracture
______and treat for shock. Apply an ice pack for ___minutes. Stabilize the arm. Seek immediate medical care.

31 Elbow Injuries Should be considered serious Treat with extreme care.

32 Recognizing Elbow Fractures and Dislocations
Immediate Severe Possible Restricted, painful motion Numbness

33 Care for Elbow Fractures and Dislocations
Do not Treat for Splint the Apply Seek

34 Tennis Elbow Results from Inflammation of the

35 Recognizing Tennis Elbow
Pain increases Gradual grip Injured Very tender on

36 Care for Tennis Elbow Apply heat Apply ice pack Seek

37 Golfer’s Elbow Equivalent to Pain is on

38 Recognizing Golfer’s Elbow
Pain increases Gradual Injured elbow

39 Care for Golfer’s Elbow
Apply Apply an ice pack for __ minutes after activity. Seek medical advice.

40 Radial and Ulnar Fractures
The radius and ulna are the two large bones in the forearm. When one bone is broken, the other acts as a splint, and there may be little or no deformity. When both are broken, the arm usually appears deformed.

41 Recognizing Radius and Ulna Fractures
Pain in Deformity Severe pain Inability to

42 Care for Radial and Ulnar Fractures
Assess and treat for shock if indicated. Apply an ice pack for __ minutes. Apply Seek medical care.

43 Wrist Fracture Wrist usually

44 Recognizing a Wrist Fracture

45 Care for a Wrist Fracture

46 Hand Injuries—Crushed Hand
May be fractured by:

47 Recognizing a Crushed Hand

48 Care for a Crushed Hand

49 Finger Injuries The __bones that make up each finger are the most commonly broken bones. The finger has three joints:

50 Finger Fracture Finger bones can move when they are broken.

51 Recognizing Finger Fractures

52 Testing Finger Fractures
If possible, Tap the Pain

53 Care for Finger Fractures
Do not try Gently apply an ice pack. Splint the finger. Seek medical care.

54 Finger Dislocation Common Same causes of fractured fingers

55 Recognizing Finger Dislocation

56 Care for Finger Dislocation
Do not try to realign. Apply an ice pack for 20 minutes. Splint the finger. Seek medical care.

57 Sprained Finger Upper joints of the fingers have a ligament on each side of the joint.

58 Recognizing a Sprained Finger
Pain and swelling Unable to make a fist Weakness Weakness or pain

59 Care for a Sprained Finger
Apply an ice pack for ___ minutes. Reevaluate. Seek medical care if pain and weakness exist. “______” tape the fingers.

60 Nail Avulsion Injury in which a nail is partly or completely torn loose

61 Recognizing a Nail Avulsion
Nail may be

62 Care for a Nail Avulsion
Secure Apply antibiotic ointment. Secure a. Do not trim away loose nail. Consult a physician.

63 Splinters Sharp splinters, usually wooden, can be impaled into the skin or under a fingernail or toenail.

64 Recognizing Splinters
Small puncture wound Sliver may be seen.

65 Care for Splinters Use tweezers to remove it.
If splinter is impaled under a nail and breaks off flesh:

66 Blood Under a Nail Blood

67 Recognizing Blood Under a Nail

68 Care for Blood Under a Nail

69 Ring Strangulation Within ___ or ___ hours

70 Recognizing Ring Strangulation
A ring has become tight on a finger.

71 Care for Ring Strangulation (1 of 2)
Spray onto finger. Massage finger from tip to hand. Smoothly wind.

72 Care for Ring Strangulation (2 of 2)
Lubricate finger well, and then Cut the _________part of the ring. Inflate an ordinary balloon.

73 Hip Joint Injuries Hip joint is a Requires great force to dislocate

74 Recognizing Hip Dislocation
Severe pain at injury Swelling at injury Hip is flexed and knee is bent and rotated inward toward opposite hip. Visible injury

75 Care for Hip Dislocation
Assess and treat for shock. Stabilize injury. Check for ankle pulse. Seek medical care.

76 Hip Fracture

77 Recognizing a Hip Fracture
Severe pain in groin area Inability to lift injured leg Leg may appear shortened and be rotated with the toes pointing abnormally.

78 Care for a Hip Fracture Treat for shock. Stabilize injured leg.
Monitor ankle pulse. Seek immediate medical care.

79 Femur Fractures Femur injuries can occur in any part of the femur.
Femur fractures often include open wounds. External bleeding may be severe.

80 Recognizing a Femur Fracture
Severe pain at injury Deformity Swelling Severe pop or snap

81 Care for a Femur Fracture
Assess and treat for shock. Cover wound with sterile dressing. Stabilize injured leg. Monitor ankle pulse. Seek immediate medical care.

82 Muscle Contusion The muscle group on the front of the thigh is the quadriceps group. Often gets bruised

83 Recognizing a Muscle Contusion
Swelling Pain and tenderness Tightness or firmness of site Visible bruise

84 Care for a Muscle Contusion
Follow the RICE procedures. Stretch the muscle.

85 Muscle Strain Occurs when a muscle is overstretched
A first aider will be unable to determine its degree.

86 Recognizing a Muscle Strain
Pop or pulling sensation while running or jumping Tenderness Stiffness and pain Swelling Visible bruise appears days later.

87 Care for a Muscle Strain
Follow the RICE procedures. Apply an ice pack. 20 minutes, three to four times a day for 48 hours Stretch the muscle.

88 Knee Injuries .

89 Recognizing a Knee Fracture
May look like a dislocation Deformity Tenderness Swelling

90 Care for a Knee Fracture
No deformity: Feel for pulse in the ankle. If pulse is felt, splint the leg with the knee straight. Significant deformity: If pulse is felt, splint the knee in the position found. Seek medical care immediately if pulse is absent.

91 Knee Dislocation A knee dislocation is a serious injury.
Deformity will be grotesque.

92 Recognizing a Knee Dislocation
Excruciating pain Deformity Pulse may be absent in the ankle.

93 Care for a Knee Dislocation
Stabilize the knee in the position found. Seek medical care immediately.

94 Patella Dislocation Must be treated immediately
Most commonly occurs in teenagers and young adults who are engaged in athletic activities.

95 Recognizing a Patella Dislocation
A blow or twisting causes kneecap to move outside of the knee joint. Swelling Inability to bend or straighten knee Pain Deformity

96 Care for a Patella Dislocation
Follow the RICE procedures. Do not try to relocate. Splint knee in position found. Seek medical care.

97 Knee Sprain Ligament injury Can range from mild to complete tearing

98 Recognizing a Knee Sprain
Severe pain Pop or snap at the time of injury Locking sensation Inability to walk without limping Inability to bend or straighten the knee Swelling Bruising

99 Care for a Knee Sprain Follow the RICE procedures. Seek medical care.

100 Knee Contusion Caused by: A direct blow Falling on the knee

101 Recognizing a Knee Contusion
Pain Swelling Tenderness Black-and-blue discoloration

102 Care for a Knee Contusion
Follow the RICE procedures.

103 Lower Leg Injuries Tibia and Fibula Fractures
Can occur at any place between the knee joint and the ankle joint Deformity may occur when one bone is broken. When only one bone is broken, little deformity may be present.

104 Recognizing Tibia and Fibula Fractures
Severe pain Swelling Deformity Tenderness

105 Care for Tibia and Fibula Fractures
Stabilize the leg. Apply an ice pack. Seek medical care.

106 Recognizing Tibia and Fibula Contusion
Victim received a direct hit directly on shin. Tender when touched Sharp pain Black-and-blue mark Difficulty moving ankle up and down Numbness or coldness in toes or foot

107 Care for a Tibia and Fibula Contusion
Expose the injury. Apply the RICE procedures. Use an ice pack. 20 minutes, three to four times daily for 48 hours If numbness or tingling exists, seek medical care.

108 Muscle Cramp Temporary condition
Usually occurs in the calf and sometimes in the thigh or hamstring

109 Recognizing a Muscle Cramp
During or after intense exercise sessions Painful muscle contraction or spasm that disables the victim

110 Care for Muscle Cramps Gently stretch. Apply pressure.
Apply ice to the muscle. Pinch the upper lip hard. Drink lightly salted, cool water. Drink a commercial sports drink.

111 Shin Splints Pain in the front of the lower leg or shin

112 Recognizing Shin Splints
Ache subsides after activity stops. Ache is a result of an increase in the workout routine. Chronic problem that gets worse

113 Care for Shin Splints Apply an ice pack before activity.
Apply pressure. Apply an ice pack for 20 minutes after activity. Curtail activity until the shin is pain free. Take anti-inflammatory pain medications.

114 Ankle and Foot Injuries
Frequently injured by twisting Stretches or tears ligaments Most ankle injuries are sprains that involve the outside ligaments.

115 Recognizing Foot and Ankle Injuries (1 of 2)
Two-part test to determine whether an X-ray is needed: Press along the bones. Pain and tenderness may indicate a broken bone. Have the victim try to stand on it. Ability to take four or more steps is most likely a sprain. Inability to walk on it may indicate a break.

116 Recognizing Foot and Ankle Injuries (2 of 2)
If injured ankle cannot tolerate hopping on opposite foot, suspect a fracture. Swelling One sided indicates a sprain. Both sided indicates a fracture.

117 Care for Foot and Ankle Injuries
Take shoes off. Use RICE procedures.

118 Aftercare of an Ankle Injury (1 of 2)
Use the RICE treatment for 24 to 48 hours. Use a contrast bath if swelling persists. Begin range-of-motion exercises once initial swelling has decreased. Begin gentle exercises.

119 Aftercare of an Ankle Injury (2 of 2)
Within 7 to 14 days, if pain and swelling have stopped, begin to stretch and strengthen the calf and ankle. Brace or tape healed ankle. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

120 Toe Injuries Include: Torn-off nails
Hematoma formation under the nails Dislocations Fractures

121 Recognizing Toe Injuries
Pain and swelling Deformity

122 Care for Toe Injuries Treat the same as a finger injury.

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