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Chapter 11: Personality Dr. M. Davis-Brantley. What is Personality? Personality –An individual’s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Personality Dr. M. Davis-Brantley. What is Personality? Personality –An individual’s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11: Personality Dr. M. Davis-Brantley

2 What is Personality? Personality –An individual’s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving Personality Theory –Attempt to describe and explain how people are similar, how they are different, and why every individual is unique

3 Personality Perspectives Psychoanalytic—importance of unconscious processes and childhood experiences Humanistic—importance of self and fulfillment of potential Social cognitive—importance of beliefs about self Also, Behaviorism (discussed extensively in Chap 5)

4 Psychoanalytic Approach Developed by Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality Emphasizes unconscious motivation – the main causes of behavior lie buried in the unconscious mind


6 Psychoanalytic Approach: Conscious Forces Conscious – all things we are aware of at any given moment Wishes, desires, or thoughts we are aware of, or can recall, at any given moment

7 Psychoanalytic Approach: Preconscious Forces Preconscious – everything that can, with a little effort, be brought into consciousness

8 Psychoanalytic Approach: Unconscious Forces Unconscious – inaccessible warehouse of anxiety-producing thoughts and drives Represents wishes, desires, or thoughts that, because of their disturbing or threatening content, we automatically repress and have difficulty accessing

9 Psychoanalytic Divisions of the Mind Id—instinctual drives present at birth –does not distinguish between reality and fantasy –operates according to the pleasure principle Ego—develops out of the id in infancy –understands reality and logic –mediator between id and superego Superego –internalization of society’s moral standards –responsible for guilt

10 Id: The Pleasure Principle Pleasure principle—drive toward immediate gratification, most fundamental human motive Libido—sexual energy or motivation Id’s psychological energy is derived from two conflicting drives Eros (life instinct) and Thanatos (death instinct)

11 Ego: The Reality Principle Reality principle—ability to postpone gratification in accordance with demands of reality Ego—rational, organized, logical, mediator to demands of reality Can repress desires that cannot be met in an acceptable manner

12 Superego: Conscience Internalization of societal and parental values Partially unconscious Can be harshly punitive using feelings of guilt

13 Classroom Demonstration 3 Volunteers

14 Defense Mechanisms Unconscious mental processes employed by the ego to reduce anxiety



17 Psychosexual Stages Freud’s five stages of personality development, each associated with a particular erogenous zone Fixation—an attempt to achieve pleasure as an adult in ways that are equivalent to how it was achieved in these stages


19 Neo-Freudian Psychodynamic Theories Carl Jung Karen Horney Alfred Adler Erik Erikson

20 Eriksonian Psychosocial Stages of Development 1.Trust vs. Mistrust—babies learn to trust others will care for their basic needs (birth to 1 year) 2.Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt—child learns that they can be self- sufficient (1-3 years) 3.Initiative vs. Guilt—children learn to undertake many adult activities or be punished by parents and made to feel guilty (3-6 years) 4.Industry vs. Inferiority—child learns to be competent and productive or unable to do anything (6-11 years) 5.Identity vs. Role Diffusion—Begin to understand/figure out “Who am I”? Or are confused about who they are (adolescence) 6.Intimacy vs. Isolation—Person seeks companionship and love or can become isolated because of fear of rejection or disappointment (Young adulthood) 7.Generativity vs. Stagnation—Person explore contribution to next generation such as meaningful work, raising a family, etc…(Middle Adulthood) 8.Integrity vs. Despair—Person tries to make sense of life and sees it as meaningful or not goal-directed (Older adulthood)

21 Evaluation of Psychoanalysis Evidence is inadequate—data are not available or able to be reviewed Theory is not testable—lack of operational definitions. Good at explaining past but not at prediction Sexism—believed that women were weak and inferior. Used male psychology as basis for all people

22 Humanistic Perspective Free will Self-awareness Psychological growth Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers

23 Actualizing tendency—innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism Self-concept—set of perceptions you hold about yourself Positive regard—conditional and unconditional


25 Evaluating Humanism Difficult to test or validate scientifically Tends to be too optimistic, minimizing some of the more destructive aspects of human nature

26 Social Cognitive Perspective Social cognitive theory—the importance of observational learning, social experience, self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism in personality observational learning Reciprocal determinism-model that explains personality as the result of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental interactions Self-efficacy—belief that people have about their ability to meet demands of a specific situation

27 Social-Cognitive Cont’d Reciprocal Determinism— Albert Bandura

28 Cognitive Social-Learning Theory Developed by Albert Bandura Reciprocal Determinism –Complex interaction of individual factors (person variables), behavior, and environment stimuli Person Variables –Factors within the person that influence behavior such as expectancies, competencies, attitudes, beliefs, or prior Sr+ history These variables are in addition to your effect on the environment and the environment’s effect on you –Ex: Beginning an exercise regimen –Reciprocal Determinism: Person—Environment—Behavior

29 Evaluation of Social Cognitive Perspective Well grounded in empirical, laboratory research However, laboratory experiences are rather simple and may not reflect the complexity of human interactions Ignores the influences of unconscious, emotions, conflicts

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