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ELEMENT 9 Task Planning, Briefing, Debriefing Module 9.1 Task and Mission Planning Module 9.2 Briefing Module 9.3 The SMEACS Brief Format Module 9.4 De-Briefing.

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Presentation on theme: "ELEMENT 9 Task Planning, Briefing, Debriefing Module 9.1 Task and Mission Planning Module 9.2 Briefing Module 9.3 The SMEACS Brief Format Module 9.4 De-Briefing."— Presentation transcript:

1 ELEMENT 9 Task Planning, Briefing, Debriefing Module 9.1 Task and Mission Planning Module 9.2 Briefing Module 9.3 The SMEACS Brief Format Module 9.4 De-Briefing

2 AIM & END STATE Aim: –To look at different planning and briefing techniques End state: –To understand how planning and briefing can reduce the likelihood of mission failure References: In the CRM Reference Manual 9.0

3 PLANNING “If you don’t know where you’re going, you might end up somewhere else.” Yogi Berra All high risk activities require significant planning and skill –No planning requires great skill (and luck) –Poor skill requires great planning 9.1

4 PLANNING Planning: –Fosters mission command by conveying commander’s intent –Assigns tasks and purposes –Contains coordinating measures –Allocates resources –Directs preparation activities and establishes times and conditions for the execution US Army Field Manual

5 PLANNING General Aviation Accident Causal Reasons over an 11 year period Note how lack of flight planning was a reason in 38% of accidents and fuel related issues were a reason in 10% (including fuel exhaustion). Source: CASA Flight Safety Magazine

6 PLANNING Good Planning helps Situational Awareness –It allows for prediction of future events and identification of threats –It reduces the stress of the unknown –It helps with comprehension and projection

7 PLANNING Good Planning helps Decision Making –SA and DM are both derived from good planning –Contingency planning allows for Evaluating of Multiple Alternatives Selecting one of Multiple Courses of Action Ability to assess against mission goals Good Planning gives you more options!

8 PLANNING Strategic Planning – plans created at the highest level for the organisation to achieve long term goals Operational Planning – plans created at mid-level usually to achieve short to mid term goals Tactical Planning – plans created by the operators to achieve immediate goals

9 PLANNING Strategic Planning –plans created at the highest level for the organisation to achieve long term goals Operational Planning –plans created at mid-level in the organisation usually to achieve short to mid term goals

10 PLANNING Tactical Planning –plans created by the operators to achieve immediate goals

11 PLANNING Contingency Planning –Plans created at various levels to counter potential threats IF THEN Logic Loops –A form of contingency planning to assist with DM –Takes the form of asking a question: “If x happens, then we shall do y.”

12 PLANNING Mind Mapping –A technique used in planning that allows for “out of the box” non-linear thinking –Uses a visual means to invoke thinking –Useful for abstract concepts –Good for academic planning (eg reports, etc) and project management –Can be time consuming


14 PLANNING Checklists –SOPs often already have checklists which can be used for planning –If one does not exist, create one or use another organisation’s and customise it

15 PLANNING MIDAS (SA Country Fire Service) Mission – objectives, goals, assumptions Information – problem, issues, situation Develop Options – COAs (Likely / Worst) Analyse Options – Assess risk, compare COA against operational expectations, liaise Select Preferred Option – Choose best COA, brief, implement, review, revise

16 PLANNING Allocate planning using one third / two thirds rule –1/3 of the time avail is spent planning –2/3 of the time avail is spent Allocating tasks to subordinates to allow them to plan Preparing resources

17 BRIEFING Briefing: presenting information from one party that has access to that information to another party in order to facilitate a task or achieve an aim Debriefing: gathering information from one or more parties in order to learn from or clarify the circumstances surrounding an incident or activity so that the information can be used in some way. 9.2

18 BRIEFING Types of Briefings: –Information Briefing: delivers information which is of use to the recipients and which does not normally contain conclusions or recommendations but it may be used to make decisions –Decision Briefing: explains a decision and how it was reached and the resulting course of action for a specific problem

19 BRIEFING Types of Briefings: –Mission Briefing: used to coordinate effort to achieve team goals by exchanging information, providing guidance and issuing instructions. It normally involves an hierarchical chain of command –Staff Briefing: to coordinate organisation’s efforts through the chain of command and to provide information on the current situation and the way ahead with appropriate guidance given

20 BRIEFING Effective Briefing Techniques - a briefer needs to be very familiar with the topic and ready to answer questions. The key techniques to an effective deliberate brief are: –Plan –Prepare –Execute –Assess/Follow Up

21 BRIEFING Plan: Analyse the situation for the brief –What needs to be communicated? –What is the knowledge base of the audience? –What are the audience’s expectations? –What are the important elements of information? –What time pressures are there? –Who can assist? –Where is the venue and what equipment is available for use? 9.2.2

22 BRIEFING Prepare: Construct the brief’s elements –Research: collect the material and ensure it is known thoroughly. Get enough information but not too much –Organise: consider the key points and arrange them in a logical order. Provide supporting data for key points and select the visual aids. –Draft: create words and visuals based on the information so that a script is NOT required

23 BRIEFING Prepare: (cont) Revise/Proof/Rehearse: –Allow the brief to ‘cool’ for a while, then return to it to revise it –Proof it for tone, content and style. Check if jargon is appropriate for the audience –Rehearse the brief and check timings, knowledge, cues, A/V and venue suitability

24 BRIEFING Execute: Deliver the briefing –Assess effectiveness during deliver: maintain eye contact; check body language. If appropriate – ask questions to ensure understanding –Manage time: keep the brief brief! Don’t allow deviations from topic to eat into time available –Be Effective: endeavour to express the points, not impress the audience. Use A/V effectively. Consider when it is appropriate to field questions

25 BRIEFING Assess/Follow Up: The briefer may need to assess the effectiveness of the brief, or capture information (eg minutes) –Clarification – provide further information requested asap –Record/Disseminate – get the minutes of the meeting out asap (if appropriate)

26 BRIEFING For many mission types, a checklist can be used to conduct a quick briefing and the debriefing (as opposed to the deliberate brief) SOPs may contain the contents of briefs which allows for standardisation and reduces confusion and inefficiency

27 SMEACS BRIEFING SMEACS is an acronym used to describe a briefing format used in military and other organisations –Situation –Mission –Execution –Administration and Logistics –Command and Signals (or Coordination) –Safety (later addition in some organisations). 9.3

28 SMEACS BRIEFING Situation: the current situation related to the mission, including: –Weather, topography, environmental conditions, political situation –Location of main threat and location(s) of support –Intention of higher command/authority –Mission critical items (eg flood area, location of survivors, fire fronts, [depending on type of brief]). 9.3

29 SMEACS BRIEFING Mission: the exact task required –“…in order to…” phrase provides a higher intent which allows for an understanding of the bigger picture –Execution part of brief provides guidance on how to do the job. 9.3

30 SMEACS BRIEFING Execution: guidance on how the mission or task is to be performed. May include: –General Outline (general guidance) –Specific Tasks –Scheme of Manoeuvre The amount of direction will be dependent on the flexibility required for the operation. 9.3

31 SMEACS BRIEFING Administration and Logistics: All supporting activities required in order to get the mission done. Some examples might be: –Accommodation bookings –Ration requests –Financial arrangements –Personnel movements –Travel requirements –Fuel. 9.3

32 SMEACS BRIEFING Command and Signals: This part outlines who is in charge and how to communicate. It may include: –Who is in charge of the team or which element is in charge of the operation –Any authorisations for the mission/task –Radio frequencies, phone numbers, points of contact, hand signals or any other means of communication relevant to the mission. 9.3

33 SMEACS BRIEFING Safety: Includes such things as –Protective equipment required –Risk Assessments and Risk Management Plans –Any protective measures required during the task. 9.3

34 SMEACS PLANNING Briefs, such as SMEACS or SOPs, can be used as planning checklists

35 DEBRIEFING Due to the often sensitive nature of debriefings, it is usually best to do them in private A team debrief may be used to recount the mission to ensure goals and standards have been achieved

36 DEBRIEFING Use the mission plan as the basis for the team debrief –Go through it in chronological order –Recount all that occurred and compare it to the plan; ask why there were deviations –Allow everyone a chance to participate –Encourage input –Verify recollections with each other… 9.4.2

37 DEBRIEFING Use the mission plan as the basis for the team debrief (cont.) –Choose an appropriate time and place ASAP after the mission is best –If people are likely to be embarrassed, do the de-brief in private –Ascertain if a 3 rd party (witness) is required –Record information for use later Record of Conversation may be needed

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