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WRITING AND NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS. ATOMS COMBINE IN SIMPLE WHOLE NUMBER RATIOS TO BECOME MORE STABLE THE SMALLEST UNIT OF ATOMIC COMBINATIONS THAT RETAINS.

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Presentation on theme: "WRITING AND NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS. ATOMS COMBINE IN SIMPLE WHOLE NUMBER RATIOS TO BECOME MORE STABLE THE SMALLEST UNIT OF ATOMIC COMBINATIONS THAT RETAINS."— Presentation transcript:

1 WRITING AND NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS

2 ATOMS COMBINE IN SIMPLE WHOLE NUMBER RATIOS TO BECOME MORE STABLE THE SMALLEST UNIT OF ATOMIC COMBINATIONS THAT RETAINS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMPND IS A MOLECULE

3 THE COMPOSITION OF A MOLE- CULE CAN BE REPRESENTED IN TWO WAYS AS AN EMPIRICAL OR A MOLECULAR FORMULA AN EMPIRICAL FORMULA EXPRESSES THE SIMPLEST RATIO OF ATOMS IN A COMPOUND CH 2 THE COMPOSITION OF A MOLE- CULE CAN BE REPRESENTED IN TWO WAYS AS AN EMPIRICAL OR A MOLECULAR FORMULA

4 A MOLECULAR FORMULA TELLS HOW MANY OF EACH ATOM ARE PRESENT IN THE COMPND C3H6C3H6 THE COMPOSITION OF A MOLE- CULE CAN BE REPRESENTED IN TWO WAYS AS AN EMPIRICAL OR A MOLECULAR FORMULA

5 A REMARKABLE FEATURE OF COMPOUNDS FORMED FROM ELEMENTS IS THAT THE PROPERTIES OF THE REACTANT ELEMENTS IS LOST +

6 WHEN AN ATOM LOSES OR GAINS ELECTRONS IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE ITS OCTET IT FORMS AN ION

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9 THERE ARE ALSO COMBINATIONS OF ATOMS THAT HAVE AN IONIC CHARGE A.K.A. POLYATOMIC IONS POLY- MEANS MANY, BUT WE TREAT EACH OF THESE POLYATOMIC IONS AS A SINGLE UNIT WITH A SINGLE CHARGE

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12 TODAY IS ALL ABOUT COMBINING THESE ELECTRICALLY CHARGED IONS TOGETHER TO FORM STABLE COMPOUNDS. REMINDER: WHEN TWO ATOMS COMBINE TRANSFERRING VALENCE ELECTRONS IT IS CALLED AN IONIC BOND.

13 AN IMPERFECT ATOM I WANT TO BE PERFECT!

14 IT COULD LOSE AN ELECTRON! WHAT DOES SODIUM NEED TO DO TO BECOME LIKE NEON?

15 IT COULD LOSE AN ELECTRON!

16 WHAT DOES SODIUM NEED TO DO TO BECOME LIKE NEON? NOW SODIUM IS MORE STABLE! 11 p’s -10 e’s +1 charge

17 I WANT TO BE PERFECT! AN IMPERFECT ATOM

18 IT COULD GAIN AN ELECTRON! WHAT DOES Cl NEED TO DO TO BECOME LIKE A NOBLE GAS, LIKE Ar?

19 - IT COULD GAIN AN ELECTRON! WHAT DOES Cl NEED TO DO TO BECOME LIKE A NOBLE GAS, LIKE Ar?

20 IT COULD GAIN AN ELECTRON! WHAT DOES Cl NEED TO DO TO BECOME LIKE A NOBLE GAS, LIKE Ar? 17 p’s -18 e’s -1 charge

21 SO WHAT’S THE BOTTOM LINE? AN ATOM WILL SHARE, LOSE OR GAIN ENOUGH ELECTRONS TO BECOME MORE STABLE WITH 8 ELECTRONS IN ITS OUTERMOST ENERGY LEVEL. AND THEN IT WILL BOND WITH ANOTHER ATOM OF A DIFFERENT ELEMENT.

22 THINK ABOUT IT… FROM OUR PREVIOUS EXAMPLE SODIUM HAD AN EXTRA ELECTRON AND GAVE IT AWAY TO CHLORINE, WHICH WAS IN NEED OF ANOTHER ELECTRON. THIS FORMED A BRAND NEW COMPOUND, NaCl IN WHICH BOTH ELEMENTS WERE MORE STABLE

23 AN ELECTRON IS TRANSFERRED FROM THE Na ATOM TO THE Cl ATOM

24 BOTH ATOMS ARE HAPPY, THEY BOTH HAVE 8 ELECTRONS IN THEIR OUTERMOST ENERGY LEVEL. THIS IS AN IONIC COMPOUND

25 OPPOSITELY CHARGED IONS ATT- RACT EACH OTHER AND FORM AN IONIC BOND THAT IS ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL, LOOKING AT THE STRUCTURE OF SALT SHOWS THAT THE ATTRACTION BETWEEN IONS IS SO GREAT THAT MANY SODIUM AND CHLORIDE IONS BECOME INVOLVED

26 THE SMALLEST STACK OF THESE ANIONS AND CATIONS IS CALLED A UNIT CELL. UNIT CELLS ARE STACKED TOGE- THER TO MAKE UP A CRYSTAL LATTICE. CATIONS & ANIONS ARE PULLED TOGETHER IN A TIGHTLY PACKED STRUCTURE, WHICH GIVES IT A DISTINCTIVE STACKED SHAPE

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28 PROPERTIES OF IONIC COMPOUNDS CAN CONDUCT ELECTRICITY WHEN MELTED IT FREES UP THE IONS TO MOVE PAST EACH OTHER PACK IN HIGHLY ORDERED ARRANGEMENTS IONS IN A SALT FORM REPEATING PATTERNS CALLED A CRYSTAL LATTICE

29 PROPERTIES OF IONIC COMPOUNDS HARD PACKED INTO LAYERS, TAKES A LOT OF ENERGY TO BREAK ALL OF THE BONDS BRITTLE IF A FORCE IS STRONG ENOUGH TO REPOS- ITION A LAYER THEN THE REPULSIVE FORCES DRIVE IONS APART

30 PROPERTIES OF IONIC COMPOUNDS HIGH MELTING POINTS AND BOILING POINTS BECAUSE OF STRONG ATTRA- CTION BETWEEN IONS, IT TAKES A LOT OF ENERGY TO BREAK THEM APART

31 WE CAN PREDICT THE COMBINATIONS OF IONS AND THE FORMATION OF THEIR IONIC FORMULAS, KNOWING HOW IONS INTERACT PREDICTING THE FORMATION OF IONIC CMPNDS WE CAN HAVE 2 DIFFERENT KINDS OF IONIC COMPOUNDS FORMED: BINARY OR TERNARY

32 THERE ARE A COUPLE OF RULES TO FOLLOW TO MAKE SURE THAT THE PROPER IONIC FORMULA IS WRITTEN. WRITING IONIC FORMULAS

33 RULE #1 IONS WILL COMBINE IN SMALL WHOLE NUMBER RATIOS THAT ADD TO GIVE A NEUTRAL COMPOUND. THE IONS’ CHARGES MUST ADD UP TO ZERO

34 IT’S BETTER TO BE POSITIVE THAN NEGATIVE THE POSITIVE ION IS ALWAYS WRITTEN FIRST. RULE #2

35 SOME IONIC COMPNDS AUTOMATICALLY HAVE CHARGES THAT ADD UP TO ZERO.

36 WHAT IF WE WERE FORMING IONIC COMPOUNDS WITH IONS WHOSE CHARGES DIDN’T ADD UP TO A CHARGE OF EXACTLY 0? HOW DO WE DECIDE THE RATIO OF THE IONS?

37 WHAT IF WE HAD THREE CHLORINE IONS?

38 IT WILL TAKE 3 Cl -1 IONS TO EQUAL ONE Al +3 ION. WE HAVE A TRICK THAT WILL HELP US KNOW THE NUMBER OF THE IONS TO MAKE A NEUTRAL COMPOUND. IT’S NOT A TRICK SO MUCH AS A SHORTCUT!

39 CRISS-CROSS RULE:

40 TO WRITE THE FORMULAS FOR COMPOUNDS CONTAINING POLYATOMIC IONS, FOLLOW THE RULES FOR WRITING FORMULAS FOR BINARY COMPOUNDS, WITH ONE EXTRA CONSIDERATION. USING POLYATOMIC IONS

41 WRITE PARENTHESES AROUND THE GROUP REPRESENTING THE POLYATOMIC ION WHEN MORE THAN ONE OF THE ION IS NEEDED TO DEVELOP THE PROPER RATIO. USING POLYATOMIC IONS

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43 MOST OF THE TIME YOU CAN NAME AN IONIC COMPOUND BY 1) WRITING THE NAME OF THE FIRST ELEMENT 2) WRITING THE ROOT OF THE NAME OF THE SECOND ELEMENT 3) ADDING -IDE TO THE ROOT NAMING THEM

44 NAMES OF NEGATIVE IONS PARENT ELEMENT NEGATIVE ION CHLORINECHLORIDE OXYGENOXIDE NITROGENNITRIDE PHOSPHORUSPHOSPHIDE FLUORINEFLUORIDE IODINEIODIDE SULFURSULFIDE BROMINEBROMIDE

45 NAMING THEM CaCl 2  K 3 P  Al 2 S 3  Calcium chloride Potassium phosphide Aluminum sulfide

46 SOME OF OUR METALS HAVE MORE THAN ONE IONIC CHARGE 1) WE HAVE TO FIGURE OUT WHICH CHARGE THE METAL HAS 2) THEN WE DESIGNATE THAT PARTICULAR METAL WITH A ROMAN NUMERAL NAMING THEM

47 FeCl 2  FeCl 3  PbBr 2  Iron(II) chloride Iron (III) chloride Lead (II) bromide NAMING THEM

48 IF THE COMPOUND HAS A POLYATOMIC ION IN IT 1) NAME THE FIRST ELEMENT 2) THEN NAME THE POLYATOMIC ION NAMING THEM

49 Fe(OH) 2  Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2  Na 2 SO 4  Iron(II) hydroxide Calcium phosphate Sodium sulfate NAMING THEM

50 BONDING & BOND ENERGIES THERE IS A LARGE AMOUNT OF ENERGY STORED IN THE BONDS OF AN IONIC COMPOUND (INDICATION OF STABILITY). THEREFORE, IT TAKES A LOT OF ENERGY TO PULL THE TWO IONS APART ONCE THEY HAVE ESTABLISHED THEIR OCTETS AND HAVE BONDED (BOND ENERGY)

51 THIS LATTICE ENERGY GIVES US A METHOD OF MEASURING THE BOND STRENGTH IN IONIC COMPOUNDS. THE LATTICE ENERGY IS THE ENERGY RELEASED TO FORM A BOND, AND IS EXACTLY EQUAL TO THE BOND ENERGY, WHICH IS THE ENERGY TO BREAK A BOND.


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