2The Formation of Ionic Bonds ObjectivesDescribe the formation of ionic bonds and the structure of ionic compounds.Generalize about the strength of ionic bonds based on the physical properties of ionic compounds.Categorize the formation of an ionic bond as exothermic or endothermic.
3The Formation of Ionic Bonds A positively charged cation is attracted to a negatively charged anion.The electrostatic force of attraction holding oppositely charged particles together is called an IONIC BOND.
4Ionic Compound Defined as a compound having an ionic bond It is a compound that is composed entirely of ions yet has a “0” overall charge.
5Ionic CompoundsA binary ionic compound contains only 2 different elements – a metal cation and a nonmetal anion (ex. NaCl)
6Forming Ionic bondsEven though they contain charged particles, ionic compounds are electrically neutral.This means, the number of electrons lost by a cation must equal the number of electrons gained by the anion.The electrical charges of the cations and anions must balance (the total of all the charges has to add up to zero).
7Example: NaCl See Table 4, p. 211 Showing ionic compound formation using electron dot structures
8The Formation of Ionic Bonds Consider the formation of the ionic compound, calcium fluoride, using electron configurations.Calcium is a group 2A metal: [Ar] 4s2How many electrons will calcium lose to gain a noble gas configuration?What is its charge?Fluorine is a group 7A nonmetal: [He] 2s22p5How many electrons will fluorine gain to attain a noble gas configuration?
9The Formation of Ionic Bonds The number of electrons lost must equal the number of electrons gained; the total of the charges must add to zero.The # of electrons lost does not equal the # gained.The total of the charges does not equal 0 ( = +1).Therefore, another F ion is needed – each F will gain 1 electron, for a total of two. That means, the # of electrons lost will equal the # gained; the total of the charges will be 0.
10The Formation of Ionic Bonds One Ca+2 will form an ionic bond with two F-.The formula for the compound will be CaF2 – the subscript of 2 below F means there are 2 F- in the compound.The name of the compound will be a combination of the names of the 2 ions that make it up - calcium fluoride.Practice worksheet
11Properties of Ionic Compounds The cation & anion have a regular, repeating pattern; forming an ionic crystalThere is no such thing as 1 unit of NaCl – Large numbers of ions are found together in a crystal, in a ratio that balances the charges.For example, in NaCl, cations and anions are in a 1:1 ratioMP indicates that the ionic bonding is very strong.
12Ionic CompoundsIf you could see the individual ions in a crystal of sodium chloride you would see that they are arranged in a specific pattern.Each sodium atom is surrounded by a chloride ion and each chloride ion is surrounded by sodium ions.
13Ionic CompoundsThe formula, NaCl, is an empirical formula – through the subscripts, it gives the smallest possible ratio of ions – 1 Na+ to 1 Cl-This ratio is determined by the number of electrons transferred in ionic bonding
14Ionic Crystals Each type of crystal has a characteristic shape. NaCl Calcium carbonate
15Ionic crystalThe 3-d geometric arrangement of particles is called a crystal lattice.Ionic compounds have different crystal lattice structures because they have differently charged ions making up that structure.
16Properties of Ionic Compounds Melting points, boiling points, and hardness depend on the strength of the attraction between the ions in the compound. They are generally high numbers.
17Properties of Ionic Compounds Dissolve readily in water because they dissociate: NaCl --> Na+(aq)+ Cl-(aq)In a solid, ions are locked into position and electrons cannot flow freely—solid ions are poor conductors of electricity.Ionic compounds, in a liquid state or in aqueous solution, are good conductors of electricity since electrons can move freely.Ions in aqueous solution that conduct electricity are called electrolytes.
18Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic crystals are hard, yet they are brittle.This figure demonstrates how and why crystals break when an external force is applied.
19The Formation of Ionic Bonds During any chemical reaction, energy is either absorbed or released.If energy is released, the reaction is exothermic.
20The Formation of Ionic Bonds The formation of ionic compounds from positive and negative ions is almost always exothermic.The attraction of the positive ion for the negative ion forms a more stable system that is lower in energy than the individual ions.
21The Formation of Ionic Bonds The energy required to separate one mole* of ions in an ionic compound is referred to as the lattice energy.The more negative the lattice energy, the stronger the force of attraction, the harder to separate the ions.* I mole = 6.02 x 1023 ions
22Trends in Lattice Energy In smaller ions, the ions are closer in space and require a greater lattice energy to separate. See NaF vs. NaI in Table 6, p. 217Compounds of ions with larger ionic charges will have greater lattice energy. Compare NaCl and SrCl2