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Chemistry Chapter 8 Notes #2. Ionic Bonding/terms  Anions and cations are held together by opposite charges.  Many ionic compounds are referred to as.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry Chapter 8 Notes #2. Ionic Bonding/terms  Anions and cations are held together by opposite charges.  Many ionic compounds are referred to as."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry Chapter 8 Notes #2

2 Ionic Bonding/terms  Anions and cations are held together by opposite charges.  Many ionic compounds are referred to as salts or oxides.  Simplest ratio of elements in an ionic compound is called the formula unit.  The bond is formed through the transfer of electrons.  Electrons are transferred to achieve noble gas configuration.

3 Ionic Bonding  Cation + Anion The cation is always written first  Formula Units (instead of molecules)  The ions come together to neutralize the charge (always have an overall charge of zero)  Structure: Positive ions are surrounded by negatives and vice versa

4 Ionic Bonding NaCl The metal (sodium) tends to lose its one electron from the outer level. The nonmetal (chlorine) needs to gain one more to fill its outer level, and will accept the one electron that sodium is going to lose.

5 Ionic Bonding Na + Cl - Note: Remember that NO DOTS are now shown for the cation!

6

7 Ionic Bonding  All the electrons must be accounted for, and each atom will have a noble gas configuration (which is stable). CaP Lets do an example by combining calcium and phosphorus:

8 Ionic Bonding CaP

9 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P

10 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P Ca

11 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P 3- Ca P

12 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P 3- Ca

13 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+ P

14 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+ P Ca

15 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+ P Ca

16 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+

17 Ionic Bonding = Ca 3 P 2 Formula Unit This is a chemical formula, which shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative particle of the substance. For an ionic compound, the smallest representative particle is called a: Formula Unit

18 Naming Compounds  Name Cation first, anion second  Monatomic cation – name of element  Monatomic anions – drop ending, add –ide Ex. Oxygen = oxide  Polyatomic ions = name of polyatomic  Transition metals – the oxidation number is written as a roman numeral

19 Examples  Sodium Chloride  Magnesium Fluoride  Potassium Nitride  Iron (III) oxide  Ammonium Sulfide  Lithium Carbonate  Strontium Phosphate  FeO  Fe 2 O 3

20 Ionic Properties  Ionic crystal = crystal lattice 3-dimensional geometric pattern of particles  High melting points  High boiling points  Hard, rigid, and brittle Due to the high strength of the bonds  Energy to separate ions (1 mole) = lattice energy


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