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Lawmaking Chapter 2 Notes. Who creates laws?  The laws that US citizens are expected to obey come from:  Congress  State Legislatures  Administrative.

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Presentation on theme: "Lawmaking Chapter 2 Notes. Who creates laws?  The laws that US citizens are expected to obey come from:  Congress  State Legislatures  Administrative."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lawmaking Chapter 2 Notes

2 Who creates laws?  The laws that US citizens are expected to obey come from:  Congress  State Legislatures  Administrative agencies

3 Administrative Agencies  Considered to be hidden lawmakers, making rules and regulations that affect business and industry.  Agencies usually hold public hearings before issuing proposed regulations.  Example of a law created by an agency- To get an original social security card, a person must present documents to prove his or her age, US citizenship or alien status, and true identity.

4 Vague Laws  A law that is difficult to interpret  Cannot be enforced  Ex. A law that makes it illegal for people to gesture in a way that makes people uncomfortable.  Ex. A criminal violation of loitering for an unreasonable amount of time.

5 Separation of Powers  Establishes the US Constitution and federal laws as the supreme law of the land.

6 Political Values  Laws based on these reflect the relationship between government and individuals.

7 Legislative Branch  Creates the laws

8 Congress  The lawmaking body of our federal government  Has power to pass statutes (laws) binding on the people of every state.

9 Bills  How laws are introduced into legislatures  Meant to respond to the needs of the citizens  Used to enact new laws or amend or repeal or old laws  Can be introduced by  Legislators  Executive Branch  Individual Citizens  Citizens’ Groups  Businesses  Lobbyists  Courts

10 Executive Branch  Enforces the laws  President, Police, FBI, DEA, etc

11 Judicial Branch  Makes laws through its rulings when it interprets the Constitution or the meaning of law.  A judge who interprets what the legislature means is interpreting legislative intent.

12 Ordinances  Laws or issue rules passed by local governments.  Ex. Smoking in restaurants

13 Precedent  Court-made law  Established by a court when its decisions on legal questions give direction to future cases on similar questions.

14 Supremacy Clause  Portion of the constitution that states that anytime a federal law conflicts with a state law that the federal law will be followed.  Granted by 10 th Amendment  Ex. Right to die

15 Keys to drafting effective laws  Write the law in a clear language.  Include the effective date of the law.  Make sure the law is enforceable and identifies who has the authority to enforce it.

16 Appellate Courts  Higher courts that people who lose a trial can ask to review and change the result of the trial.

17 International Treaties  An agreement or contract between two countries.  Only binding to the US, if it is signed by the president and is ratified by at least 2/3 of the senate.  Along with the US Constitution, is the supreme law of the land.


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