Presentation on theme: "Soc 319: Sociological Approaches to Social Psychology Thursday February 5, 2009 Research Methods (cont’d) and Socialization."— Presentation transcript:
Soc 319: Sociological Approaches to Social Psychology Thursday February 5, 2009 Research Methods (cont’d) and Socialization
C. Experiments 1. Characteristics a. Experimenter manipulates independent variable b. At least two levels of independent variable c. Random assignment 2. Settings a. Laboratory b. Field experiment
Randomly assigned to “neutral” or control video clip group Conceptual model of an experimental design Number of shocks delivered to “learning partner” in experimental task Randomly assigned to “violent” video clip group + Ref.
Effect of witnessing violence on children’s play (Bandura)
C. Experiments (cont’d) 3. Strengths a. High internal validity 4. Weaknesses a. Unnatural setting b. Demand characteristics c. Experimenter effects d. Low external validity
III. Ethics A. Sources of harm 1. Physical harm a. EXAMPLE: Zimbardo prison study b. EXAMPLE: Venkatesh, “rogue sociologist” 2. Psychological harm a. EXAMPLE: Milgram obedience studies b. EXAMPLE: Iowa stuttering studies 3. Breach of confidentiality a. EXAMPLE: Humphreys’ Tearoom Trade study B. Strategies to protect subjects 1. Informed consent 2. Debriefing
Physical and emotional harm A scene from the Stanford Prison Experiment.
Results: Milgram experiment Slight though very strong shock (0-240 volts)100% Intense shock (255-300 volts) 88% Extreme intensity Shock (315-360 volts)68% Danger: severe shock (375-420 volts)65% “XXX” (435-450 volts)65%
What if you knew your research subject was planning a drive-by-shooting?
I. Socialization A. What is it? B. Outcomes 1. Gender roles a. Influence of parents b. Influence of schools/teachers c. Influence of peers 2. Racial socialization a. Influences of above socializing agents
Controversy: How much do socialization agents matter?
Socialization (cont’d) 2. Moral development a. What is it? b. Sources of influence c. Piaget’s study d. Kohlberg’s model of moral development i. Six stages ii. Gilligan’s critique
Kohlberg Model of Moral Development 1. Preconventional morality - moral judgment is based on rewards/punishments Stage 1: Obey the rules to avoid punishment Stage 2: Obey the rules to get reward 2. Conventional morality - moral judgments are based on social consequences of act Stage 3: Conform to the rules that are defined by others’ approval or disapproval Stage 4: Rigid conformity to society’s rules 3. Postconventional morality - moral judgments are based on internal ethical principles Stage 5: Rules may be changed for better alternatives Stage 6: behavior should conform to internal principles
Socialization C. Subgroup differences 1. Historical differences a. Alwin v. Middletown studies 2. Social class contrasts a. Baumrind typology b. Bowles & Gintiss theory
Parental values for children If you had to choose, which thing on this list would you pick as the most important for a child to learn to prepare him for life? To obey To be well-liked or popular To think for himself To work hard To help others when they need help To be religious Which comes next in importance? Which comes third….?
Values change over time 1920s: To be religious 1950s: To obey 1970s: To think for himself 2000s: ???????????
Baumrind’s Childrearing Typology High WarmthLow Warmth High ControlAuthoritativeAuthoritarian Low ControlPermissive