2CharactersA dynamic character is one who goes through a personality change due to the events in the story.A static character is one whose personality does not change throughout the story.
3Round CharactersA round character is one whose personality, background, motives, and other features are fully described or explained by the author. In general, main characters are round because many insights are given.
4Flat CharactersA flat character is one who is not fully described but is useful in carrying out some narrative purpose of the author. They tend to be minor characters.
5Dynamic and RoundIn most books the main character is both dynamic and round.
6Round and StaticCharacters can be round and static. For example, think about the character James Bond. We know a great deal about this character’s personality (round), yet he does not go through an inner personality change from the beginning to the end of the story (static). Often the side-kick in a story is round and static.
7Dynamic and FlatCharacters cannot be dynamic and flat, because in a flat character we do not know enough about them to recognize a change.
8Dynamic or Static Round or Flat Ebenezer Scroogefrom Charles Dickens'sA Christmas Carol
26The City of Ember is set in an underground city in the future. SettingThe City of Ember is set in an underground city in the future.26
27AssignmentOn your story map fill in the setting box for The Cay. (Note: List 2 locations.)
28Assignment – Answer Key February 1942 on the island of Curacao, then part of the Dutch West Indies.When Phillip is ship-wrecked, the setting shifts to an unnamed cay deep in the Devil's Mouth, the long U-shaped coral banks in the Caribbean. Most of the action takes place between April and August of 1942, although the narrative actually concludes in April of 1943.
29First-Person Point of View In the first-person point of view one character tells the story. This character reveals only personal thoughts and feelings of what s/he sees. The writer uses pronouns such as "I“, "me“, “mine”, or "my".Example: I woke up this morning feeling terrific. I hopped out of bed excited to start the new day. I knew that today was the day my big surprise would come.29
30Second-Person Point of View With the second-person point of view the narrator tells the story using the pronoun "you". The character is someone similar to you.Example: You wake up feeling really terrific. Then you hop out of bed excited to start the new day. You know that today is the day that your big surprise will come.This is rarely used in literature. It can be seen in Choose Your Own Adventure books.30
31Third-Person Point of View The third-person point of view is the most commonly used in fiction. When writing in the third-person you will use pronouns such as "he", "she", or "it".Example: Brian woke up feeling terrific. He hopped out of bed excited to start the new day. He knew that today was the day that his big surprise would come.31
32Group PracticeUsing your response cards, determine if each of the following excerpts are written in first, second, or third-point of view.32
331st, 2nd, or 3rd Point of ViewExcerpt from Woodsong by Gary Paulsen I go up to the front of the team in the darkness and drag them around, realizing we are lost. My clothes have been ripped on tree limbs and my face is bleeding from cuts, and when I look back down the side of the mountain we have just climbed I see twenty-seven head lamps bobbing up the trail. Twenty-seven teams have taken our smell as the valid trail and are following us. Twenty-seven teams must be met head on in the narrow brush and passed and told to turn around.33
34First-Person Point of View Excerpt from Woodsongby Gary PaulsenFirst-Person Point of View34
351st, 2nd, or 3rd Point of ViewExcerpted from Soldier's Heart by Gary Paulsen There would be a shooting war. There were rebels who had violated the law and fired on Fort Sumter and the only thing they'd respect was steel, it was said, and he knew they were right, and the Union was right, and one other thing they said as well--if a man didn't hurry he'd miss it. The only shooting war to come in a man's life and if a man didn't step right along he'd miss the whole thing. Charley didn't figure to miss it. The only problem was that Charley wasn't rightly a man yet, at least not to the army. He was fifteen and while he worked as a man worked, in the fields all of a day and into night, and looked like a man standing tall and just a bit thin with hands so big they covered a stove lid, he didn't make a beard yet and his voice had only just dropped enough so he could talk with men.35
36Third-Person Point of View Excerpted from Soldier's Heartby Gary PaulsenThird-Person Point of View36
371st, 2nd, or 3rd Point of ViewExcerpted from Father Water, Mother Woods by Gary Paulsen It started that simply. At the courthouse or the library there was a large bulletin board, and for a dollar you could sign the board and write down your guess to win the car-through-the-ice raffle. Of course, you never met anyone who had won, but only those who knew somebody who had won, and therein, in the winning, the simplicity was lost.37
38Second-Peron Point of View Excerpted from Father Water, Mother Woods by Gary PaulsenSecond-Peron Point of View38
391st, 2nd, or 3rd Point of ViewExcerpted from Nightjohn by Gary Paulsen A "Tonight we just do A." He sat back on his heels and pointed. "There it be." I looked at it, wondered how it stood. "Where's the bottom to it?" "There it stands on two feet, just like you." "What does it mean?" "It means A--just like I said. It's the first letter in the alphabet. And when you see it you make a sound like this: ayyy, or ahhhh." "That's reading? To make that sound?" He nodded. "When you see that letter on paper or a sack or in the dirt you make one of those sounds. That's reading."39
40Third-Person Point of View Excerpted from Nightjohn by Gary Paulsen Third-Person Point of View40
411st, 2nd, or 3rd Point of ViewExcerpted from Caught by the Sea by Gary Paulsen I drove to California that very day, straight to the coast, then north, away from people, to a small town named Guadalupe, near Santa Maria. There I bought some cans of beans and bread and Spam and fruit cocktail and a cheap sleeping bag and then walked out through the sand dunes, where I could hear the surf crashing. I walked until I could see the water coming in, rolling in from the vastness, and I sat down and let the sea heal me.41
42Excerpted from Caught by the Sea by Gary Paulsen First-Person Point of View42
431st, 2nd, or 3rd Point of ViewExcerpted from Guts by Gary Paulsen I have spent an inordinate amount of time in wilderness woods, much of it in northern Minnesota, some in Canada and some in the Alaskan wilds. I have hunted and trapped and fished and have been exposed to almost all kinds of wilderness animals; I’ve had bear come at me, been stalked by a mountain lion, been bitten by snakes and punctured by porcupines and torn by foxes and once pecked by an attacking raven, but I have never seen anything rivaling the madness that seems to infect a large portion of the moose family.43
44First-Person Point of View Excerpted from Gutsby Gary PaulsenFirst-Person Point of View44
451st, 2nd, or 3rd Point of ViewExcerpted from Winterkill by Gary PaulsenAnd I would like to stop the story of Duda here and tell how he got his divorce and married Bonnie and they adopted me and we bought a farm That's how it would end in a movie, with Rock Hudson playing Duda and Doris Day playing Bonnie, and that's how it should end, and that's how I dream of it ending almost every night, until I wake up sweating and remember that it isn't a movie and it doesn't end that way.45
46Excerpted from Winterkill by Gary Paulsen First-Person Point of View 46
47Third-Person Point of View Third-person point of view may be written using several variations.In the third-person objective the story is told without describing any character's thoughts, opinions, or feelings. Think of this as seeing what a camera can see. A camera can not see what is going on inside someone’s mind.47
48Third-Person Objective Third-person objective is rarely used except in easy picture books.ExampleThe alarm clock sounded. Brian cut off the clock and jumped out of bed. He had a smile on his face.48
49Third-Person Point of View In the third-person omniscient, the reader knows exactly what is going on inside various characters’ heads in regards to their thoughts and feelings.Rob is surprised.Tim is sneaky.Joe is sad.Pete is in love.49
50Third-Person Omniscient Example from Woods Runner by Gary PaulsenAlthough Samuel's parents lived in the wilderness, they were not a part of it. They had been raised in towns and had been educated in schools where they'd been taught to read and write and play musical instruments. They moved west when Samuel was a baby, so that they could devote themselves to a quiet life of hard physical work and contemplation. They loved the woods, but they did not understand them. Not like Samuel. (Here the reader knows both the parents’ and Samuel’s feelings.)50
51Third-Person Point of View In third-person limited, the reader knows only one character's mind, either throughout the entire work or in a specific section. The narration is limited to what can be known, seen, thought, or judged from a single character's perspective.Sally wondered what the boys were thinking.51
53Answer Key ~~ Point of View for http://mrshatzi From Maniac Magee by Jerry Spinelli - third person limitedFrom From the Mixed-Up files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler, by E. L. Konigsburg - third person limitedFrom The Twenty-One Balloons by William Pene du Bois - first personFrom Number the Stars by Lois Lowry - third person limitedFrom Missing May by Cynthia Rylant - first personFrom The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis - third person omniscientFrom I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou - first personFrom The Olympic Games by Theodore Knight - third person limitedFrom “Through the Tunnel” by Doris Lessing - third person omniscientFrom “Pictures on a Rock” by Brent Ashabranner - third person limited53
54AssignmentOn your story map, fill in the Point of View box for The Cay.
56ConflictConflict is the struggle between the opposing forces on which the action in a work of literature depends.In short stories, there is usually one major conflict. In longer stories, there could be several conflicts.
57Conflict Some forms of conflict include the following: Person vs. PersonPerson vs. SelfPerson vs. the EnvironmentPerson vs. Technology
58Person vs. PersonA person vs. person conflict is between two forms of like beings.ExamplesFrom Where the Red Fern Grows - Billy and his dogs are attacked by a mountain lion, and they must do everything they can to survive.From Weasel - Nathan is captured by Weasel, an Indian fighter. Earlier in the book, Weasel had attacked Nathan's pa, had taken away Pa’s riffle, and had killed the farm animals.
59Person vs. SelfIn a person vs. self conflict the main character has a problem within him/herself.ExamplesFrom Weasel Nathan spends the winter months struggling with his conscious. Should he go back to Weasel’s cabin to seek revenge or forget about Weasel?
60Person vs. the Environment In a person vs. the environment conflict a character is struggling against the forces of nature.Example:From Where the Red Fern Grows - Little Ann and Old Dan tree a coon in the tallest tree in the river bottoms.From Where the Red Fern Grows - Billy enters the championship coon hunt and encounters the snowstorm.
61Person vs. TechnologyIn a person vs. technology conflict, a character has a problem with robots or machines.ExampleFrom Hatchet - Brian flying the airplane after the pilot dies.
62Response CardsUse your response cards to show the type of conflict in each of the following slides.
81AssignmentOn your story map, fill in the conflict boxes for The Cay.
82Assignment Answer KeyConflict Person vs. The Environment Phillip and Timothy must survive the hot sun, sharks, and lack of water while on the raft. Later they must live through a hurricane. Person vs. Self Phillip struggles with his prejudice of black people. Phillip has to learn to come to terms with his blindness to survive.
83PlotThe plot is the story that is told in a novel, play, or movie. The plot has five components.Plot Structure ComponentsExpositionRising ActionClimaxFalling ActionResolution83
84ExpositionThe exposition is the introduction of the story. It contains the setting, introduces the main characters, and gives background information. It is the information needed to understand a story.84
85Rising ActionThe rising action is the portion of the story where a character tries to solve the conflict. This is the longest part of the story.85
86ClimaxThe climax is the tensest moment of the story. It is the turning point in the story that occurs when characters try to resolve the complication.86
87Falling ActionThe falling action is where the characters begin to apply a solution to the conflict and tie up loose ends.87
88ResolutionThe resolution is how everything turns out in the story. It is the set of events that bring the story to a close.88
89AssignmentComplete the Plot and Plot Diagram on your Story Map for The Cay.
92ThemeThe theme is the insight about life or human nature that the writer shares with the reader. It is usually not stated directly, but must be inferred.The theme is the message of a story. Ask yourself this question. What should you learn from the story?
93Theme Using Hatchet Theme Proof (Evidence) Never give up - DeterminationBrian kept flying the plane and radioing for help after the pilot died.Brian hunted and searched for food.Brian built a shelter to protect himself from the elements.Brian kept working until he was able to get inside the plane to get the emergency pack.
94Theme Using Weasel Theme Proof (Evidence) Letting Go of Revenge and Anger ~ Moral ChoicesNathan is consumed with anger after he becomes friends with Erza and learns how Weasel has mistreated him.Nathan struggles when he comes face-to-face with Weasel. ~~~ Weasel is an evil man who has attacked Nathan’s father, killed the animals on his farm, stolen his father’s gun and animals.Nathan decides to take the law in his own hands only to discover Weasel has already died.
95AssignmentComplete Theme section on your Story Map for The Cay.
96Assignment – Answer Key Theme Proof (Evidence)FriendshipAcceptanceTransformationSacrifiePhillip does not like Timothy because he has been taught to fear people who are different. When Phillip become blind he can not see the differences and learns to accept Timothy as a person and not someone who is from a different race.The two form a friendship that is so strong that Timothy is willing to risk his life in order to save Phillip.
97Assignment – Answer Key Theme Proof (Evidence)Man versus the EnvironmentWhen the ship Phillip and Timothy explodes they must overcome the following:Living at sea on a raftFinding food and shelter on an islandOvercome a hurricane