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© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Session Objectives You will be able to: Understand the principles of ergonomics Recognize the risk factors, signs, and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) Understand our program for identifying, reporting, and controlling MSDs Know how to protect yourself from MSD injuries and reduce your risk
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 What Is Ergonomics? Modify jobs to fit capabilities of people Reduce MSDs Repetitive reaching, forceful exertions, bending and lifting, or working with vibrating equipment Engineering controls Safe work practices PPE
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) Injuries 1.8 million MSD injuries each year 600,000 MSD injuries require time away from work
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Regulation Of Ergonomics General Duty Clause Applies to unregulated hazards Failure to keep a hazard-free workplace Hazard recognized by employer or employer’s industry Hazard could cause death or serious harm Method exists to correct the hazard
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 MSD-Type Injuries Repetitive Motion 63% Repetitive Placing, Grasping, or Moving Objects 20% Repetitive Use of Tools 8% Typing or Key Entry 9%
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Characteristics of MSDs Occur from a single event or many small injuries Take weeks, months, or years to develop Produce no symptoms in early stages, but show symptoms after injury has occurred Contributing causes may occur at home and at work Same MSD may differ in severity from person to person doing a similar task
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 General Signs of MSDs Less strength for gripping Less range of motion Loss of muscle function Inability to do everyday tasks
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 MSD Symptoms Back and neck— shooting pain, stiffness Shoulders—pain, stiffness, loss of mobility Arms and legs— shooting pains, numbness Elbow and knee joints— pain, swelling, stiffness, soreness
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 MSD Symptoms (cont.) Hands and wrists— swelling, numbness, loss of strength Fingers—jerking movements, or loss of strength, mobility, and feeling Thumbs—pain at the base Feet and toes— numbness, tingling, stiffness, burning sensation
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Outward Signs of MSDs Swelling or inflammation of joints Vigorously shaking hands Massaging hands, wrists, or arms Cradling arms Limping Stiff back
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Common MSDs Carpal tunnel syndrome Low back pain Eye strain Tendinitis Trigger finger Image Credit: Cal OSH & NIOSH
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Common MSDs (cont.) De Quervain’s disease—forceful grip Carpet layer’s knee— contact trauma Rotator cuff tendinitis— repetitive motion Herniated disk— bending and twisting Hand-arm vibration syndrome
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Act on the Signs of MSD Act immediately: Report the problem Seek medical attention Early treatment and intervention can prevent permanent injury
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 What Do You Think? 1.What do you think is causing this employee’s pain? 2.How can this be improved? Employee experiences severe back pain often.
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 What Is Causing the Pain? Possibilities: Repetitive lifting of heavy objects Twisting while lifting Poor lifting techniques Lifting above shoulders Single lifting injury Poor conditioning
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 What Can Be Done? Use lifting aids Don’t twist Lift using your legs, not your back Use a stool or stepladder Don’t overdo it Keep your back in shape
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Which of these are MSD symptoms? Check Your Knowledge Loss of muscle function Racing heart Pain Numbness Tingling Dizziness Excessive cough Stiffness Swelling of joints
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 MSDs—Any Questions? Do you understand what MSDs are and the signs and symptoms of MSDs?
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Risk Factors That Lead to MSDs Repetitive motions Forceful exertions Awkward postures Contact stress (pressure points) Vibrations
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Risk Factor— Repetitive Motion Stress on muscles and tendons Contributing factors Duration and speed of repetitious movement Number of muscles involved Required force Raising and lowering the arm over and over again
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Forceful Exertions Inflammation of tendons, nerves, joints Contributing factors Type of grip Weight of object Body posture Type and duration of the task Image Credit: OSHA
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Awkward Postures Stress on muscles and tendons Contributing factors Reaching overhead Force the body must maintain to hold the position Holding fixed positions (static loading) Lifting while twisting, reaching, or turning
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Contact Stress Pressing against or grabbing a hard object puts pressure on nerves, tendons, and blood vessels Contributing factors Repetition Duration of contact Grip strength required
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Vibration Affects tendons, muscles, joints, nerves Contributing factors Prolonged grip Restricts blood supply to hands and fingers Tools without vibration dampening device Poor power tool maintenance
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 MSDs Related To Risk Factors De Quervain’s disease Trigger finger Rotator cuff syndrome Thoracic outlet syndrome Hand-arm vibration syndrome Repetition Posture Forceful Grip Contact Stress Prolonged Vibration
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Can You Identify The Risk Factors?
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Can You Identify The Risk Factors? (cont.) Repetitive motion Lifting or reaching awkward position excessive weight arms raised MSDs Torn tendon Tendinitis Back pain Risk Factors
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 MSD Risk Factors— Any Questions? Do you understand MSD risk factors and hazards?
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Ergonomics Management Job assessment MSD reporting and response system Designated coordinator Training Encourage employee participation and reporting of MSDs
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Identifying and Controlling MSD Hazards Determine whether MSD hazards exist and degree of risk Devise a control strategy with your input Implement control measures Training
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Control Methods Install engineering controls including workstation layout and proper tools Institute work practice controls including neutral postures for performing tasks Administrative controls including rescheduling to reduce frequency or duration of exposure to MSDs Personal protective equipment (PPE) to provide a protective barrier between worker and MSD
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 How to Protect Yourself Change positions often; take stretch breaks Maintain neutral posture whenever possible Eliminate or reduce MSD risk factors Use material-handling aids Report MSD symptoms
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 MSD Prevention and Control—Any Questions? Do you think you understand what you need to know about the methods to manage, prevent, and control MSDs?
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0709 Recognize MSD signs and symptoms Understand MSD hazards Take steps to control MSD hazards Participate in the Ergonomics Program
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