Structures connected with the present perfect tense: 1) It is (has been) +a period of time +since-clause. 2)This (That/It) is the first (second…) time + that-clause (present perfect tense). 3)This (That/It) is the best/ finest /most interesting … + that-clause. (present perfect tense).
the Present Perfect Continuous Tense 现在完成进行时态 Form: have / has + been +doing
_________________________________________ past perfect past now future present perfect _________________________________________ past perfect past now future present perfect continuous
The boy started having dinner five minutes ago. He is still having dinner now. The boy ________________ (have) dinner since five minutes ago. has been having
The man started working in the field half an hour ago. He is still working now. The man __________________ (work) in the field for half an hour. has been working
Summary 1: 1.We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about actions that started in the past and are still continuing. I have not been sleeping well since I returned home. past present not being able to sleep well I’m still not sleeping well. I returned home.
Summary 2: We also use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about actions that have just finished but are still connected to the present in some way. ---Sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting long? ---Yes. I’ve been waiting for an hour.
Please read Notes1-4 on Page 10 carefully. P.10 Comparison
Present perfect or present perfect continuous tense? She is still reading the book. Li Jia has been reading a book about Stonehenge.
Li Jia has read a book about Stonehenge. She finished reading the book. She knows the content of the book now.
Note: We use the present perfect tense to talk about an action completed in the recent past, and the present prefect continuous tense for an action that started in the past and is still happening.
She __________ (visit) Japan twice this month. He _______________ (tour) America for two months. has visited has been touring
Note: The present perfect continuous tense can’t be used with time expressions such as twice or how many times, because in this tense the action is continuous, not stopped and started again. We can use the present perfect tense for repeated actions, and the present perfect continuous tense for non-stop actions.
How many times _______________ (swim) in the lake? How long ______________________ (swim) in the lake? have you been swimming have you swum
Note: We usually use the present perfect tense to ask questions beginning with how many/much, and the present perfect continuous tense to ask questions beginning with how long.
1)She has had the pen for 2 years. 2)She has written many compositions with this pen. 3)She has been writing compositions with this pen. state verb action verb A state verb or an action verb?
An action means something happening or changing. A state means something staying the same. Some examples of action verbs are do, go, and play. Some examples of state verbs are like, know and exist.
Note: We can use either a state verb or an action with the present perfect tense, but we usually can only use an action verb with the present perfect continuous tense. A state verb doesn’t mean an action, so it can’t be used in a continuous tense.
They’ve always had a big garden. How long have you known each other? He’s been in hospital since his accident.
I’ve already been to Tibet. I’ve never visited Tibet.
Note: We use the present perfect tense, not the present perfect continuous tense, with the words like always, never, yet, already and ever.
How long have you been learning English? How long have you learnt English?
It has been raining for a long time. It has rained for a long time.
Note: An action which began in the past and is still continuing or has only just finished can, with certain verbs, be expressed by either the present perfect or present perfect continuous. Verbs which can be used in this way include expect, hope, learn, lie, live, sleep, sit, study, wait, want, snow, etc.