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Chapter 5 Nomenclature. Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 2 5.1 Naming Compounds 5.2 Naming Binary Compounds.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Nomenclature. Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 2 5.1 Naming Compounds 5.2 Naming Binary Compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Nomenclature

2 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 2 5.1 Naming Compounds 5.2 Naming Binary Compounds That Contain a Metal and a Nonmetal (Types I and II) 5.3 Naming Binary Compounds That Contain Only Nonmetals (Type III) 5.4 Naming Binary Compounds: A Review 5.5 Naming Compounds That Contain Polyatomic Ions 5.6Naming Acids 5.7Writing Formulas from Names

3 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 3 Binary Compounds  Composed of two elements Binary Ionic Compounds  Metal—nonmetal Binary Covalent Compounds  Nonmetal—nonmetal

4 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4 Binary ionic compounds contain positive cations and negative anions.  Type I compounds Metal present forms only one cation.  Type II compounds Metal present can form 2 or more cations with different charges.

5 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 5 Metals (Groups I, II, and III) and Non-Metals Metal _________ + Non-Metal _________ideSodium Chlorine Sodium Chloride NaCl Type I Compounds

6 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 6 Common Simple Cations and Anions

7 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 7 1.The cation is always named first and the anion second. 2.A simple cation takes its name from the name of the element. 3.A simple anion is named by taking the first part of the element name (the root) and adding –ide. Rules for Naming Type I Ionic Compounds

8 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 8 Examples: KClPotassium chloride MgBr 2 Magnesium bromide CaOCalcium oxide Binary Ionic Compounds (Type I)

9 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 9 Exercise What is the name of the compound SrBr 2 ? a)strontium bromine b)sulfur bromide c)strontium dibromide d)strontium bromide

10 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 10 Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II) Metals in these compounds can form more than one type of positive charge. Charge on the metal ion must be specified. Roman numeral indicates the charge of the metal cation. Transition metal cations usually require a Roman numeral.

11 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 11 Metals (Transition Metals) and Non-Metals Metal ______ +Roman Numeral (__) + Non-Metal ________ide Iron III Bromine Iron ( III ) Bromide FeBr 3 Compare with Iron ( II ) Bromide FeBr 2 Metals (Transition Metals) and Non-Metals Older System Metal (Latin) _______ + ous or ic + Non-Metal ________ide Ferrous Bromine Ferrous Bromide FeBr 2 Compare with Ferric Bromide FeBr 3 Type II Compounds

12 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 12 Common Type II Cations

13 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 13 1.The cation is always named first and the anion second. 2.Because the cation can assume more than one charge, the charge is specified by a Roman numeral in parentheses. Rules for Naming Type II Ionic Compounds

14 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 14 Examples: CuBrCopper(I) bromide FeSIron(II) sulfide PbO 2 Lead(IV) oxide Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II)

15 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 15 Exercise What is the name of the compound CrO 2 ? a)chromium oxide b)chromium(II) oxide c)chromium(IV) oxide d)chromium dioxide

16 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 16 Exercise What is the correct name of the compound that results from the most stable ion for sulfur and the metal ion that contains 24 electrons? a)iron(III) sulfide b)chromium(II) sulfide c)nickel(III) sulfate d)iron(II) sulfide

17 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 17 Formed between two nonmetals. 1.The first element in the formula is named first, and the full element name is used. 2.The second element is named as though it were an anion. 3.Prefixes are used to denote the numbers of atoms present. 4.The prefix mono- is never used for naming the first element. Rules for Naming Type III Binary Compounds

18 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 18 Type III Compounds Non-Metals and Non-Metals Use Prefixes such as mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, etc. CO 2 Carbon dioxide CO Carbon monoxide PCl 3 Phosphorus trichloride CCl 4 Carbon tetrachloride N 2 O 5 Dinitrogen pentoxide CS 2 Carbon disulfide

19 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 19 Prefixes Used to Indicate Numbers in Chemical Names 9nona- 10deca- 11undeca- 12dodeca- 13trideca- 14tetradeca- 15pentadeca- 16hexadeca- 17heptadeca- 18octadeca- 19nonadeca- 20icosa Additional Prefixes

20 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 20 Examples: CO 2 Carbon dioxide SF 6 Sulfur hexafluoride N 2 O 4 Dinitrogen tetroxide Binary Covalent Compounds (Type III)

21 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 21 Exercise What is the name of the compound SeO 2 ? a)selenium oxide b)selenium dioxide c)selenium(II) oxide d)selenium(IV) dioxide

22 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 22 Flow Chart for Naming Binary Compounds

23 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 23 Let’s Practice! Name the following. CaF 2 K2SK2S CoI 2 SnF 2 SnF 4 OF 2 CuI 2 CuI SO 2 SrS LiBr Strontium Sulfide Lithium Bromide Copper ( I ) Iodide or Cuprous Iodide Sulfur dioxide Copper ( II ) Iodide or Cupric Iodide Oxygen diflouride Tin ( IV ) Fluoride or Stannic Fluoride Tin ( II ) Fluoride or Stannous Fluoride Cobalt ( II ) Iodide or Cobaltous Iodide Potassium Sulfide Calcium Flouride

24 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 24 Polyatomic ions are charged entities composed of several atoms bound together. They have special names and must be memorized.

25 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 25 Names of Common Polyatomic Ions (page 130)

26 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 26 Naming ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions follows rules similar to those for binary compounds.  Ammonium acetate

27 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 27 NaOHSodium hydroxide Mg(NO 3 ) 2 Magnesium nitrate (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Ammonium sulfate FePO 4 Iron(III) phosphate Examples

28 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 28 Overall Strategy for Naming Chemical Compounds

29 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 29 Exercise What is the name of the compound KClO 3 ? a)potassium chlorite b)potassium chlorate c)potassium perchlorate d)potassium carbonate

30 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 30 Exercise Examine the following table of formulas and names. Which of the compounds are named correctly? a)I, II b)I, III, IV c)I, IV d)I only FormulaName IP2O5P2O5 Diphosphorus pentoxide IIClO 2 Chlorine oxide IIIPbI 4 Lead iodide IVCuSO 4 Copper(I) sulfate

31 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 31 Acids can be recognized by the hydrogen that appears first in the formula—HCl. Molecule with one or more H + ions attached to an anion. Acids

32 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 32 If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix hydro– and the suffix –ic attached to the root name for the element. Examples: HClHydrochloric acid HCNHydrocyanic acid H 2 SHydrosulfuric acid Rules for Naming Acids

33 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 33 Acids That Do Not Contain Oxygen

34 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 34 If the anion contains oxygen:  The suffix –ic is added to the root name if the anion name ends in –ate. Examples: HNO 3 Nitric acid H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic acid Rules for Naming Acids

35 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 35 If the anion contains oxygen:  The suffix –ous is added to the root name if the anion name ends in –ite. Examples: HNO 2 Nitrous acid H 2 SO 3 Sulfurous acid HClO 2 Chlorous acid Rules for Naming Acids

36 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 36 Some Oxygen-Containing Acids

37 Naming Compounds Return to TOC 2.7

38 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 38 Flowchart for Naming Acids

39 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 39 Exercise Which of the following compounds is named incorrectly? a) KNO 3 potassium nitrate b) TiO 2 titanium(II) oxide c) Sn(OH) 4 tin(IV) hydroxide d) PBr 5 phosphorus pentabromide e) H 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid

40 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 40 Sodium hydroxide  NaOH Potassium carbonate  K 2 CO 3 Sulfuric acid  H 2 SO 4 Dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5N2O5 Cobalt(III) nitrate  Co(NO 3 ) 3 Examples

41 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 41 Exercise A compound has the formula XCl 3 where X could represent a metal or nonmetal. What could the name of this compound be? a)phosphorus trichloride b)carbon monochloride c)tin(IV) chloride d)magnesium chloride

42 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 42 Lets Practice Some More! HF Na 2 CO 3 H 2 CO 3 KMnO 4 HClO 4 H2SH2S NaOH CuSO 4 PbCrO 4 H2OH2O NH 3 Hydrooxic acid (no……just water) Nitrogen trihydride (no..just ammonia) Copper ( II ) sulfate or Cupric sulfate Lead ( II ) chromate or Plubous chromate Sodium hydroxide Hyrdogen sulfuric acid Perchloric acid Potassium permanganate Sodium carbonate Hydroflouric acid Carbonic acid


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