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Published bySolomon Dawson Modified over 8 years ago
Diagnostic Procedures & Diseases
History & Physical Checking for symptoms of disease Chest pain, shortness of breath (SOB), awareness of heartbeat (palpitation), fatigue, dizziness or loss of consciousness, edema, pain in legs when walking
Electrocardiogram Tracing of the electrical activity of the heart
Phonocardiogram EKG with heart sounds
Echocardiogram Ultrasound that measures size and movement of the heart structures
The difference between ECG, Ecocardiogram and Stress Test ecg vs echo vs stress test
Doppler Ultrasound Measures blood flow
Arteriography Radiopaque dye injected and x-ray series taken of blood flow
Cardiac Catheterization Right side of heart – catheter threaded into vein then into the vena cava then into the heart then into the pulmonary artery Left side of heart – catheter threaded into artery then into left ventricle, then into aorta then into coronary arteries X-rays taken during procedure Dye also injected
Arteriosclerosis Hardening of the arteries Atherosclerosis Fatty deposits on the walls of the arteries (high blood pressure, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, tension)
Hypertension 90% - no specific cause 10% - symptom of another disease (ex: kidney disease) Increases workload of the heart
Bacterial Endocarditis: Inflammation of the internal lining of the heart Also involves the valves
Valvular Heart Disease Abnormalities of the heart valves Especially mitral and aortic valves Heart valves are scarred Treatment – valve replacement
Congenital Heart Disease Defects in the heart that occurred during embryonic and fetal development Defective communication between the chambers, malformation of valves, and malformation of septum
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Left side heart failure Pumping action of heart diminished Fluid accumulates and is retained in tissues Compensations – increased heart rate, greater force of contraction, retention of fluid by kidneys, enlargement of heart.
Cor Pulmonale Right side heart failure Hypertension in pulmonary circulation
Peripheral Arterial Disease Decreased blood flow to peripheral vessels
Varicose Veins Enlarged veins which can be inflamed
Aneurysm Weak section in wall of an artery – ballooning out, possibly rupturing.
Thrombus Blood clot that stays where it is formed
Stroke (CVA) Brain infarct Caused by decreased oxygen supply to brain due to blood clot or hemorrhage Symptoms: trouble walking, trouble speaking, paralysis or numbness in face, arm or leg, trouble seeing, headache
Embolus Blood clot or thombus that travels through circulatory system
Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden, unexpected loss of heart function, breathing, and consciousness Symptoms: sudden collapse, no pulse, no breathing Call 911 & Start CPR!
Heart Attack Blood clot blocks the flow of blood through coronary artery Symptoms: pressure, pain in chest, left arm, back, teeth & jaw, shortness of breath, sweating, fainting, nausea & vomiting, heartburn, clammy skin, dizzy, fatigue
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