Cardiovascular Disease The heart, blood, and blood vessels are at risk for a number of potentially serious diseases.
Cardiovascular Disease Noncommunicable diseases are not infectious. Noncommunicable disease A disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment
Cardiovascular Disease One of the most common noncommunicable diseases is cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease A disease that affects the heart or blood vessels
Types of Cardiovascular Disease There are many different types of CVDs. As you read about these cardiovascular diseases, think about how each one is caused and what you can do to reduce your risk.
Hypertension Hypertension can damage the heart, blood vessels, and other body organs if it continues over a long period of time. Hypertension High blood pressure
Hypertension Because hypertension often has no symptoms in its early stages, it is sometimes called a “silent killer.” To treat hypertension, patients should manage their weight, get adequate physical activity, and eat a nutritious diet.
Atherosclerosis If you smoke, have high blood pressure, or have high cholesterol levels, you may have atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis A disease characterized by the accumulation of plaque on artery walls
Atherosclerosis People with atherosclerosis have a condition called arteriosclerosis, which can cause a heart attack or stroke. Arteriosclerosis Hardened arteries with reduced elasticity
Atherosclerosis The artery on the far left is healthy, while the other arteries show evidence of atherosclerosis.
Diseases of the Heart When the blood supply to the heart is restricted, the heart does not get the oxygen it needs, and a heart attack can occur. The result can be heart muscle damage or even sudden death due to cardiac arrest.
Diseases of the Heart Heart attack occurs due to insufficient blood supply to the heart. Cardiac arrest, in which the heart stops beating in a rhythmic way, occurs due to an electrical problem with the heart.
Diseases of the Heart In many cases, sudden cardiac arrest can be reversed if CPR or electric shock using a defibrillator is applied.
Diseases of the Heart Diagnostic Tools Electrocardiogram Magnetic Resonance Imaging Angiography CT Scan Produces graph of heart’s electrical activity Produces images that show heart damage Detects vessel obstructions with dye and x-rays Creates heart images that show artery blockage
Diseases of the Heart Treatment Options Coronary Bypass Angioplasty Pacemaker Laser Intervention Healthy vein from another area implanted to create detour around blocked artery. Balloon inserted inside artery then inflated, deflated, and removed. Chest implant sends electrical impulses to heart to make it beat regularly. Laser fiber inserted into blocked artery vaporizes the blockage, restoring blood flow.
Angina Pectoris Angina pectoris, which usually lasts from a few seconds to minutes, is usually caused by atherosclerosis and should be taken very seriously. Angina pectoris Chest pain that results when the heart does not get enough oxygen
Arrhythmias Arrhythmias happen when the heart skips a beat or beats very fast or very slowly. Arrhythmias Irregular heartbeats
Arrhythmias In one type of arrhythmia, called ventricular fibrillation, the electrical impulses that regulate heart rhythm become rapid or irregular. This is the most common cause of cardiac arrest.
Heart Attack A heart attack occurs when a reduced or blocked blood supply damages the heart muscle. Many heart attacks are sudden and cause intense chest pain, but about 25 percent produce no symptoms.
Heart Attack Anyone who experiences the following warning signs of heart attack should call 911 immediately: Pressure, fullness, squeezing, or aching in chest area Pain spreading to arms, neck, jaw, abdomen, or back Chest discomfort, with shortness of breath, lightheaded feeling, sweating, nausea, or vomiting
Congestive Heart Failure This occurs when the heart gradually weakens and can no longer maintain its regular pumping rate and force.
Congestive Heart Failure Congestive heart failure cannot be cured, but it can improve through continuous treatment, such as medication and practicing healthy lifestyle behaviors.
Stroke Sometimes an artery supplying blood to the brain becomes blocked or bursts, resulting in a stroke. Stroke An acute injury in which blood flow to the brain is interrupted
Stroke A stroke that occurs because of a burst blood vessel is called a cerebral hemorrhage. Stroke can cause problems such as paralysis.
Stroke Warning Signs of Stroke Severe headache Numbness on one side of the body Confusion Trouble walking Dizziness Trouble seeing out of one or both eyes
What Teens Need to Know CVD can begin during the teen years. A teen with damaged blood vessels may not experience any symptoms until later in adulthood, but the danger is already there.
What Teens Need to Know CVD Risk Factors You Can Control Tobacco Use High Blood Pressure High Cholesterol Physical Inactivity Excess Weight Stress Alcohol and Drug Use