Presentation on theme: "The Cardiovascular System"— Presentation transcript:
1The Cardiovascular System MICHAEL McCANNYour Worship Mayor Marianne Matichuk and members of City Council, it is a pleasure to present to you this a progress report on Health Sciences North / Horizon Santé-Nord.The Cardiovascular SystemHow your Heart and Blood Vessels Work
2Learning Points Overview of the heart and the circulatory system Coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD)Atrial Fib and Heart FailureTreatment OptionsThe redefining process included an extensive consultation phase.Over 1,600 touchpoints were achieved through a variety of input vehicles including one-on-one interviews, group sessions, walkabouts, online surveys and telephone polls.The Steering Group was also designed to ensure a broad representation of input from key stakeholders. Members from the education, business, municipal sectors as well as employee and physician representation were included.It should be noted that Sudbury Regional Hospital was a name chosen by a group of consultants acting on behalf of the provincial government under the Hospital Restructuring initiative. There was no consultation, no community input.Health Sciences North is a name selected by our entire community.
3The Heartis a muscle the size of your fist located between the breastbone and the spine just to the left of the midline inside your rib cageA women’s heart is smaller in size than a man’sSome of the questions that were asked during the consultations included:What are our opportunities?What should our promise be to our community?What are you most proud of?The consultations confirmed support for our academic mandate. But while people were excited about the new direction, there was not a full understanding of the academic mission.We recognize the need to engage our internal and external audiences in a dialogue about what it means to be an academic health sciences centre and the opportunities it brings for our patients and community.The launch of Health Sciences North will serve as an excellent platform for that dialogue to occur. It is perhaps the strongest message we will send about our new and evolving role in health care. The November 8 public forum at Science North will also afford us with an opportunity to continue that dialogue.What is important to remember is that we are not rebranding or renaming our institution. Health Sciences North is a new direction, a new mandate, a vision that will see us transform and redefine who we are and what we do.
4The Heart Our bodies need oxygen to survive Blood carries oxygen to the whole bodyThe heart pumps the blood (oxygen) through the arteries to the body tissuesThe redefining process considered not only our organizational name, but also all of the facilities, services, programs and affiliates that make up our institution.There were three main questions that we considered:What is the best name for the organization?What is the best name for all our other sites and programs? andHow do these various sites and programs relate back to the organization?There have been several amalgamations and consolidations that have occurred over the past decade which have resulted in many programs becoming part of our institution.The result has been a multitude of “add-ons” with no clear structure to ensure an appropriate and consistent approach to how these new services are reflected in the overall organization.This has led to some confusion on the part of our clients and also a feeling of being disenfranchised by some “off-site” employees.
5The Heart Has four chambers two upper chambers called Atria two lower chambers called VentriclesThe left ventricular wall is thicker to be able to pump with more forceThis slide is a good depiction of our current situation.Our organization name is the same name as the acute care site. This creates the “other sites” and “off-sites” scenario that I just described.The various facilities we have carry names that are either historical in nature – for example former hospitals – or based on where they are situated geographically such as Cedar Street or Kirkwood.There is no uniforming element amongst all of these facilities and programs.Nor is there any clear demonstration as to how these various elements relate back to the overall organization.5
6The HeartThe grade of the left ventricle indicates the amount of damage to the heart muscle:Grade 1 - normalGrade 2 - some damageGrade 3 - more damageGrade 4 - weakened heartThis slide displays our new name architecture.The organization’s name of Health Sciences North serves as an umbrella to the overall architecture.Our acute care site will be named Ramsey Lake Health Centre. This name was selected for its flexibility and breadth of scope to be inclusive of the various programs and facilities situated at this site such as the CTC, Cancer Centre, Learner Space, Research Institute and, in the future, the Pediatric Centre.The Memorial Site will be named Sudbury Outpatient Centre to reflect the new mandate of that facility.The RCP will be called the Northeast Cancer Centre and Cedar Street and Kirkwood will be called the Sudbury Mental Health and Addictions Centre.All of the facilities are named “centres” as a unifying element. It also serves to denote a place as opposed to an organization or program.In addition, all facilities and programs will be endorsed as being part of Health Sciences North.6
7There are four valves:TricuspidPulmonicMitral - BicuspidAorticvalves are strong and flexibleallow blood to flow in one directionmay be injured or diseased requiring repair or replacement
8Circulation of Blood to the Heart Muscle Through the Coronary Arteriesright coronary arteryleft coronary arterycircumflexleft anterior descending artery
9Collateral Circulation develops in later agearteries grow to make a natural bypass towards an area of reduced blood flow
10Heart’s Electrical Conduction The Sinoatrial node or pacemaker beatstimes per minuteAtrioventricular node can beat times per minute as a backupBundle of His and Ventricles can beat times per minute as a further backup
11Artery disease = Atherosclerosis Process can start before birthGradual buildup of plaque in the arteriesNarrows the inside diameter of the arteriesCauses the artery walls to become less elastic
12Where can blockages occur? Any artery in the bodyOccurs more often in areas where arteries branchMost common in arteries to the:head - carotid artery diseaseheart - coronary artery diseaselegs - peripheral artery diseaseorgans - eg. kidneys, male sex organs
13Angina -reduced blood flow to the heart muscle Temporary lack of oxygen to the heart muscleis caused by a narrowing in one or more of the coronary arteriesTreated with Nitrospray and rest
14Angina Symptoms Men and Women: chest pain pain into throat and jaw pain down one or both armsshortness of breathMore common in women:fatiguepain in back between shoulder bladesnausea and vomiting
15Claudication -reduced blood flow to the muscles in the lower extremities Temporary lack of oxygen to one or both of your legsis caused by a narrowing in one or more of the arteriesTreated with rest
16Reduced blood flow to the brain: signs and symptoms TIA and Stroke HeadacheBlurred visionSlurred speechDizzinessDifficulty swallowingWeakness on one sideDifficulty with balance
17How does a Heart Attack occur? A sudden severe blockage in a coronary arterycaused by plaque rupture and blood clottingCoronary artery spasmAn involuntary closing of the walls of the artery. Usually occurs for a short period of time but can cause severe blockageCoronary artery spasm and blood clot occurring together
19Other Medical Conditions Atrial FibrillationHeart Failure
20Atrial Fibrillation A rapid and irregular heart beat Most common causes areDamage to the heart’s structureDiseases affecting the heart’s valves or pumping systemLong term high blood pressureUndetermined cause
21Atrial Fibrillation Signs and symptoms Fast, irregular heart beat Weak, lightheaded, confusedShortness of breath, chest painTreatmentMedication – slow down the heart ratePacemaker – to control the heart rateSurgical – ablation/maze procedure to change the electrical pathwayBlood thinner medication - to prevent blood clots
22Heart failureThe heart is not strong enough to pump enough blood through the body to meet the demandsCauses – most commonHeart attackLong term high blood pressureHeart valve problems
26Diagnostic Testing – for the heart Resting ECG - looking at the heart’s electrical system from 12 different viewsHolter Monitor/Loop recorders - longer term ECG monitoringExercise stress test - checking ECG changes while increasing the work of the heartEchocardiogram - heart ultrasoundStress Thallium - nuclear dye test with or without a stress testAngiogram - dye test of the heart’s arteries
27Diagnostic testing – for the legs and head Doppler studiesAngiograms
34Surgical Procedures Pacemakers Implantable Defibrillators EndarterectomyArtery Bypass Grafting (coronary, carotid, leg arteries)Valve Replacement or repairHeart Transplantation
35Pacemaker Stimulates the heart to beat regularly The generator is the size of a silver dollar and is implanted just beneath the skin.The leads are threaded into position through veins leading back to the heart.
36Pacemaker Battery life is up to 10 years depending on the usage Has the ability to slow down or speed up the heart rateIn some models, the heart rate can be increased with activityIndications:heart rate too slowheart rate too fast
37Implantable defibrillators (ICD) A pacemaker with the ability to deliver an electrical shock to correct a life threatening heart rhythmIndications:life threatening irregular heart rhythmheart failure
38EndarterectomySurgical removal of plaque from the inner lining of an artery
39Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Provides a new supply of blood beyond the site(s) of the blockageIndicationsunstable angina that does not respond to medical treatmentstable angina with severe left-main or significant three-vessel coronary artery disease
40Leg Artery BypassVein from leg or arm, or synthetic graft is used to bypass a blockage in legsFor severe blockage when there is a risk of losing your limb
41Valve Replacement and Repair Valves must flex, stretch, and hold back pressure to function normallyAortic and Mitral valves are the most commonly repaired or replaced valves2 types of valves usedtissue valves from pigs; do not need to take blood thinnersmechanical valves; need to take blood thinners for life
42Heart Transplantation People who require heart transplants suffer from severe heart failure2 major causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiomyopathy