HEART HEALTH 1.Cholesterol 2.Smoking 3.Diabetes 4.Hypertension 5.Exercise 6.Weight 7.Genetics
Cardiovascular disease deaths Every 7 minutes in Canada, someone dies from heart disease or stroke. Heart disease and stroke are two of the three leading causes of death in Canada.
HEART MURMURS A heart murmur is an extra or unusual sound heard during a heartbeat No symptoms Usually harmless
ANEMIA Lower than normal amount of oxygen reaching tissues due to: –Low number of red blood cells –Less hemoglobin in red blood cells than normal –Sickle cell anemia (abnormally shaped red blood cells)
LEUKEMIA Cancer of the blood or bone marrow, where white blood cells are overproduced These extra white blood cells are immature or dysfunctional, and create a harmful RBC / WBC imbalance
ANEURYSMS Abnormal weakening in artery wall Pressure of the blood flowing through the vessel creates a bulge at the weak spot When the size of an aneurysm increases, there is a significant risk of rupture, resulting in severe hemorrhage, complications or death
CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Your heart muscle cannot pump, or eject, the blood out of the heart very well. This is called systolic heart failure. Your heart muscles are stiff and do not fill up with blood easily. This is called diastolic heart failure.
CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE As the heart's pumping action is lost, blood may back up in other areas of the body, causing fluid to build up in the lungs, the liver, the gastrointestinal tract, and the arms and legs. As a result, there is a lack of oxygen and nutrition to organs, which damages them and reduces their ability to work properly.
Arteriosclerosis General condition where walls of arteries thicken and lose their elasticity Most common form of arteriosclerosis is atherosclerosis, where plaque builds up on the inside of the artery walls Can occur in any artery and particularly dangerous in arteries that supply the brain, heart, legs and kidneys May lead to –Angina –Blood clots –Heart attack –stroke
Treating Arteriosclerosis: Angioplasty Catheter with a balloon is inserted into femoral artery and snaked all the way to coronary artery Balloon is expanded and stent holds artery open
Treating Arteriosclerosis: Coronary Bypass Section of healthy artery or vein from another part of the body (usually leg) is removed and put in place of blocked coronary artery Double, triple or quadruple
Symptoms Uncomfortable pressure in chest lasting more than a few minutes Pain spreading from chest to the shoulders, neck or arms, upper abdomen, neck, jaw, or inside the arms or shoulders Lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, nausea or shortness of breath Anxiety, nervousness and/or cold, sweaty skin. Paleness Increased or irregular heart rate Feeling of impending doom.
CPR: CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION If you find someone who seems to be NOT breathing with NO pulse... –Try to wake them up! –Open airway: head-tilt, chin-lift –Check for breathing again by watching for chest rising/lowering Still not breathing? –Two mouth-to-mouth breaths Still not breathing? –CPR: 30 two-handed, rapid, deep-chested, firm compressions –Follow with head-tilt, chin-lift + two mouth-to-mouth breaths –And repeat...
Drugs and the Heart Digitalis –found in foxglove –treat heart failure Beta blockers –block sites on heart for epinephrine –slow down heart rate (Angina: reduce O2 demand)
Valve disorders: Stenosis Replace valve with human, pig or synthetic valve
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Obstruction to blood flow Too much salt Arteries must increase connective tissue Grow increasingly weak and may rupture Can damage kidneys: kidney failure
Arrhythmia Irregular heart beat Blocked coronary artery –Buildup of toxins –Cause part off heart to beat out of rhythm = ventricular fibrillation Congenital heart defect –Weak valves –Backflow affects rhythm
Pacemaker Emits electrical signal to heart, to control heart beat