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Vaccines and Vaccine Preventable Diseases. Variolation.

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Presentation on theme: "Vaccines and Vaccine Preventable Diseases. Variolation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vaccines and Vaccine Preventable Diseases

2 Variolation

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8 Childhood Vaccinations Measles Mumps Polio Rubella (German Measles) Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Diphtheria Tetanus (Lockjaw) Haemophilus influenzae type b Hepatitis B Varicella (chickenpox) Pneumococcal disease

9 Diphtheria Kills 1 in 10 Infected Lives in the Mouth, Nose, and Throat of an Infected Person Spread by Direct Contact Suffocation, Paralysis, Heart Failure, Coma, Death

10 Diphtheria Incubation Period of 2-5 Days Picture shows “Bullneck Diphtheria

11 Tetanus/Lockjaw (Child)

12 Tetanus (neonatal) Usually Caused by Rubbing Umbilical Cord with Cow Dung

13 Tetanus (Baby)

14 Tetanus (Adult)

15 Tetanus Bacteria lives in soil and sometimes in the intestines and feces of animals. Centers the Body through cuts, punctures, or other wounds Incubation period of 3 days to 3 weeks Stiffness, difficulty swallowing, lockjaw, muscle rigidity, painful convulsions Broken bones, coma, death

16 Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Whooping Sound Spread through Coughing and Sneezing Pneumonia, Seizures, Brain Damage Hospitalization or Death Seizures and Brain Damage

17 Polio (Iron Lungs) Los Angeles 1952 Polio killed 26,635 People in the United States

18 Eleven-year-old Robert Blackburn (1953) show with grandmother and mother gets breathing assistance from an iron lung at Children’s Hospital in Farmington.

19 President Franklin D. Roosevelt, alarmed by decades of worsening polio epidemics and the terrible toll the virus was taking on America’s young, established the National foundation for Infantile Paralysis. Radio listeners all over the country were urged to send their dimes directly to the White House. The response was so effective the organizations name was changed to the March of Dimes.

20 Visitors to the 1056 Detroit Auto Show were provided with adhesive tabs to attach gift dimes to an automobile for the March of Dimes. Polio victim two-year- old Stephen Schelling examines the display.

21 Kurt Achenbach, 7, a first-grader at Baker School in 1954, bucks up his courage as a “polio pioneer” volunteering to test the new Salk vaccine. 1.8 million elementary children participated in the clinical trial.

22 The March of Dimes now fights against birth defects. Recent planning of a monument to Franklin Roosevelt wanted to portray him out of his wheelchair, to be more politically correct.

23 “Fear hung like heat in the summer. No one knew how you got it. Did you breathe it in, swallow it in contaminated milk, drink it down at a public fountain, or get it from flies on our picnic lunch?” Kathryn Black from book In the Shadow of Polio: A Personal and Social History.

24 Estimates suggest more than 1.6 million polio survivors live in this country, > 40 years after the Salk vaccine virtually eradicated Polio. Now Post-Polio problems are beginning to develop

25 Polio Still Exists in the World

26 Polio Virus lives in throat and intestines of an infected person Usually spreads to other people through contact with feces Incubation period of 6-20 days Long Term Paralysis, Inability to Breathe without the Help of a Machine, Death

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28 Measles Runny Red Eyes Runny Nose Fever Note: 1 Measles Case is Considered an Epidemic

29 Measles Easily spread through coughing, sneezing, or just talking with an infected person. Incubation period of days. Rash will cover body.

30 Measles Complications 1. 1.Pneumonia 2. 2.Ear Infections 3. 3.Brain Damage 4. 4.Seizures 5. 5.Death

31 Measles (Koplik’s Spots) White spots inside the mouth are characteristic of measles.

32 Mumps Spread through coughing, sneezing, or just talking with an infected person Incubation period of days Swollen cheeks or Swollen jaw, Fever, Headaches

33 Mumps Complications include brain damage, swelling of testicles leading to sterility, and deafness

34 Rubella Spread through coughing, sneezing, or just talking to an infected person. Disease can pass from mother to baby during pregnancy

35 Congenital Rubella Syndrome

36 Congenital Rubella Syndrome (Thickening of Eye Lens Leading to Cataracts)

37 Rubella Causes a Temporary Arthritis Often Results in Miscarriage or Premature Birth Babies who are infected before birth may be born with defects including - deafness- heart damage - blindness- mental retardation

38 Haemophilus influenzae Type B Swollen face due to Hib Infection Tissue under jaw and cheek is infected and spreading

39 Haemophilus Influenza Type B Very dangerous to children under 5 years Spread through contact with infected person Germ enters body through the nose and throat Fever, Severe Headache, Severe Sore Throat, Severe Breathing Problems. Complications include Brain damage, Seizures, Paralysis

40 Droplet Transmission Showing How Influenza Germs Spread Through the Air When Someone Coughs

41 Hepatitis A Note yellowing of skin and eyes: One sign of Hepatitis A, a serious liver disease infecting >100,000 people in USA each year

42 Hepatitis A Transmitted by fecal-oral route Incubation period 1 month Lasts for 3-4 weeks Symptoms can recur in 1 out of 10 Complications include - low energy levels for up to a year - hospitalization - death

43 Hepatitis B Resulting in Liver Cancer Serious liver disease resulting in swelling of stomach and permanent liver damage that may lead to liver cancer and death.

44 Hepatitis B Enters the blood stream and attacks the liver Incubation period of 6 weeks to 6 months Can be a Carrier 50% Asymtomatic Complications - Permanent Severe Liver Damage - Cancer of the Liver - Death

45 Chickenpox Common disease in children. On average, about 100 people die from chicken pox in the US every year. Itchy rash and sore throat are common symptoms. Complications include lung damage, brain damage, and death.

46 Chickenpox Contracted at birth from infected mother. Death is a possibility in a case this severe.

47 Smallpox A Success Story for Vaccination

48 Smallpox

49 Principles and Effects of Vaccination A vaccine is a suspension of organisms or parts of organisms that is used to induce immunity Provides herd immunity

50 Herd immunity rests on the principle of safety in numbers; if more people are immune to a certain virus, either through vaccination or through already having the disease, then more people in the population, even if they themselves aren't immune, are protected from the disease.

51 Vaccination Doses Vary 4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus & pertussis vaccine (DTaP) 4 doses of Hib vaccine 3 doses of polio vaccine 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine 3 doses of pneumococcal vaccine 1 dose of measles, mumps & rubella vaccine (MMR) 1 dose of varicella vaccine The number of doses change or vary as new studies reveal new information.

52 Free Vaccines

53 A federal program called Vaccines for Children provides free vaccines to eligible children, including those without health insurance coverage, all those who are enrolled in Medicaid, American Indians and Alaskan Natives.

54 Types of Vaccines Attenuated Whole-Agent Vaccines Inactivated Whole-Agent Vaccines Toxoids Subunit Vaccines Conjugated Vaccines Nucleic Acid Vaccines or DNA Vaccines Dream Vaccine

55 Attenuated Whole-Agent Vaccines Weakened Microorganisms Lifelong Immunity Polio, Measles, Mumps, Rubella

56 Inactivated Whole-Agent Vaccines Killed Bacteria or Inactivated Viruses Chemicals (Formalin or Phenol) Rabies, Flu, Polio, Cholera

57 Toxoid Vaccines Inactivated Toxin Requires Boosters Tetanus, Diphtheria

58 Subunit Vaccines Consists of Antigenic Fragments of Microorganisms Include Recombinant Vaccines Include Acelluar Vaccines Hepatitis B

59 Conjugated Vaccines Antigen Combined with a Booster Protein Boosts Immune Response Flu Young Children As Early As 2 Months

60 Nucleic Acid or DNA Vaccines Currently Being Developed Clinical Trials on Animals No Human Clinical Trials Yet Inject a Naked DNA Plasmid

61 Dream Vaccine No Injection Lifetime Immunity with Single Dose No Refrigeration Inexpensive Easy to Manufacture

62 Diagnostic Immunology Precipitation Reactions - Small Test Tube - Formation of Ring Tests designed to check for interactions between antibodies and antigens. These show us if antibodies or antigens are present in a patient.

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64 Agglutination Reactions - Antigens and Antibodies - Clumping / Agglutination

65 O+ B+ O+ B+

66 Neutralization Reactions - Production of Antitoxin Complement Fixation - Cell Rupturing

67 ELISA - Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay - Cell Rupture - The Most Widely Used Test

68 Fluorescent-Antibody Technique - Fluorescent Dye

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