Presentation on theme: "RUBELLA aka. The German measles Stephanie Mejia AP bio."— Presentation transcript:
RUBELLA aka. The German measles Stephanie Mejia AP bio
Rubella virus is the only member of the Rubivirus genus of the Togavirus family. Unlike most Togaviruses it is NOT arthropod-borne, but is acquired via the respiratory route The virus was first described by German physicians in the mid- eighteen century hence “German Measles” Before the vaccine to rubella was introduced in 1969, widespread outbreaks usually occurred every 6- 9 years in the United States and 3-5 years in Europe, mostly affecting children in the 5-9 year old age group.
mild fever associated with a rash, runny nose and aches in the joints when it affects adults. When it effects fetuses the conditions are gruesome. The rash doesn’t appear until 1 week prior to been infected. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment if the mother is infected within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, the child may be born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which is a range of serious incurable illnesses. Symptoms are usually treated with paracetamol until the disease has run its course. Treatment of newly born babies is focused on management of the complications. Congenital heart defects and cataracts can be corrected by surgery. Lifelong immunity to the disease follows infection, and there is a safe and effective vaccine to prevent rubella Rubella virus specific IgM antibodies are present in people; these antibodies can persist for over a year and a positive test result needs to be interpreted with caution. The rash doesn’t appear until 1 week prior to been infected.
How is it Transmitted? Acquired, (i.e. not congenital), rubella is transmitted via airborne droplet emission from the upper respiratory tract of active cases. The virus may also be present in the urine, feces and on the skin. The disease has an incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks. Immunizations are the best way to prevent this virus.
Rubella in History In 1940, there was a widespread epidemic of rubella in Australia There was a pandemic of rubella between 1962 and 1965, starting in Europe and spreading to the United States. In the years 1964-65, the United States had an estimated 12.5 million rubella cases. This led to 11,000 miscarriages or therapeutic abortions and 20,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome. Of these, 2,100 died as neonates, 12,000 were deaf, 3,580 were blind and 1,800 were mentally retarded. In New York alone, CRS affected 1% of all births. In 1969 a live attenuated virus vaccine was licensed. In the early 1970s, a triple vaccine containing attenuated measles, mumps and rubella (MRS) viruses was introduced.