Definition: Poaching is the hunting and killing of any animal illegally.
Two Main Types of Poaching: The harvesting of game animals outside of their designated hunting season. Killing any non-game species such as threatened or endangered animals.
Poaching History Hunting began millions of years ago as a form of subsistence for primitive humans. Almost every aspect of the animal was used
History of Poaching Poaching of animals was most likely to have been originated by a group of Europeans venturing into Africa. – They went back with only the hides of some animals to promote fur clothing and other specific, desirable animal products.
Efforts to Curb Poaching A growing concern about interstate exploitation of illegally taken game led to the enactment of The Lacey Act in 1900. –It prohibits the interstate and international trade in illegally taken wildlife.
Recent History in Poaching Since 1997, prosecution of cases involving poaching total over 18,000 in the United States. Gail Anderson, a forensic entomologist at Simon Fraser University near Vancouver, British Columbia, calls bear poaching, “the second most profitable crime in North America after drug dealing,” and has reported seeing, “truck loads of galls,” from U.S. bears and urges a more dynamic anti-poaching approach here.
Laws In general some species are legal to hunt and some are not Some laws from states and some from federal government Enforcing laws can be problematic
Lacey Act Passed in 1900 but amended since then Regulates import/export of illegally taken species Enacted because of poaching, but doesn’t directly restrict poaching
Wildlife Act of 1976 Detailed restrictions on the harvest of animals Restricts methods Restricts which animals can be harvested and where Purpose – for wildlife management and preservation/conservation
Penalties Penalties for breaking laws vary VA – forfeit of license and or firearms Migratory species (mainly birds) – federal repercussions
Enforcing Laws Enforcement – not easy Problems with funding Hard to police everyone – too much man- power needed Small scale offenders have decent chance of evading punishment
Why Poach? Money for drugs and prostitution Far East exotic foods and medicinal purposes Trophy heads of Bighorn sheep, elk, moose, deer, goats, bear, etc. Exotic parts such as fetuses, antlers, antler velvet, hooves and tails of deer/elk/caribou, feathers of eagles and other birds of prey, and the gall bladders, paws, penis', claws and teeth of bears
The Black Bear Paws, penis', claws, feet, and teeth Gall Bladder is scarcer than heroin The bile from the gall bladder is used in traditional oriental medicines for the treatment of burns, fever, stomach ulcers, heart disease, cancer, liver and gall bladder problems, and hemorrhoids. ***70 lb of gall bladder = 1 million dollars
Cougar Killed for head, claws, and skin Skin = $1,000-1,500 Territory spans the United States, but major problem with poaching in the West
Birds of Prey Body parts used in decorative items and jewelry Carcasses of bald eagles can sell for $2,500 and feathers for $50 each Falcons and their fledglings are trapped, stolen from nests, and sold for use in the "sport" of falconry
http://www.angelfire.com/va2/toshb/poaching.html Works Cited “Anti-Poaching Program.” Mountain Lion Foundation. October 2002.. Journal of Wildlife Management. Vol. 63, No. 3, July 1999. Bethesda MD. Savannah, Robert. American Black Bear. Fish and Wildlife Service. 27 Nov 2002. Verney, Peter. Animals in Peril. Great Britain: Mills & Boon Ltd., 1979. Waugh, Jeff. “Poachers Threaten Wildlife.” Banff National Park- Wildlife. 1 Oct. 2002.
Works Cited (Cont’d) “Anti-Poaching Program.” Mountain Lion Foundation. October 2002.. Clede, Bill. Wildlife Forensics Lab. Law and Order. November 2002.. Journal of Wildlife Management. Vol. 63, No. 3, July 1999. Bethesda MD. Savannah, Robert. American Black Bear. Fish and Wildlife Service. 27 Nov 2002. Verney, Peter. Animals in Peril. Great Britain: Mills & Boon Ltd., 1979. Waugh, Jeff. “Poachers Threaten Wildlife.” Banff National Park- Wildlife. 1 Oct. 2002.