Presentation on theme: "Trade in Wildlife Parts History Back in the day (colonization of NA) –Native Americans used parts to trade w/ white man –Mostly pelts, antlers, and horns."— Presentation transcript:
History Back in the day (colonization of NA) –Native Americans used parts to trade w/ white man –Mostly pelts, antlers, and horns –For guns, traps, pots and pans, and other necessities –Lead to early exploitation of native wildlife History Back in the day (colonization of NA) –Native Americans used parts to trade w/ white man –Mostly pelts, antlers, and horns –For guns, traps, pots and pans, and other necessities –Lead to early exploitation of native wildlife populations
History cont’d Exploitation went on for many years Only after many wildlife numbers decreased dramatically did the gov’t step in Began with setting aside land for National preserves –Created many different laws pertaining to wildlife
Laws 1 st major law: Lacy Act (1900) - regulates interstate and international trade of wildlife and wildlife parts (dead or alive) Migratory Bird Treaty Act (1916) - protects migratory bird species in Canada, Mexico, and the US
Laws cont’d Duck Stamp Act (1934) - to supplement and support Migratory Bird Act - Funds from duck stamp set aside to buy land for wildlife sanctuaries (mostly wetland habitats)
Laws Endangered Species Act (1973) - Purpose: - To conserve habitats that endangered species depend on - To create programs to conserve endangered/threatened species - To uphold other treaties/conventions
Endangered Species Act Policy: –To conserve endangered/threatened species to uphold this act –Cooperation between state and federal authorities for conservation –Prohibition of exporting or importing any endangered/threatened species native to any country
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (1975) Global treaty focusing on protection of plant and animal species form unregulated international trade
CITES Three phases –Protects threatened species from international trade –Regulates trade in non-threatened species but may become threatened if trade goes on –Gives countries options of species to list if already protected within boundaries
International Trade Main importers: South East Asia, Europe, and US Main exporters: South America, US, and Africa
ASIA Big importers and exporters Poor economy in places (rural) = exporters Good economy in places (city) = importers China – biggest importer both internationally and intranationally –Biggest problematic country Big importers and exporters Poor economy in places (rural) = exporters Good economy in places (city) = importers China – biggest importer both internationally and intranationally -biggest problematic country
ASIA Rural problems –Not a lot of money –Know that wildlife parts = big money –Used to and still hunt for subsistence –Sell/trade parts for food, salt, guns, etc. –Belief of success in next hunt if have skulls
ASIA City problems –Too much money –Want traditional medicines –Want to be like western peoples (US) --Trophies etc.
ASIA Main mammals poached in SE Asia: –Tigers –Tibetan antelope and gazelle –Giant panda –Rhinos –Tapirs –Musk deer –Various monkeys
Tigers Tail: various skin diseases Brain: laziness and pimples Whiskers: toothaches Skin: treat mental illness Hair: when burnt chases away centipedes Bones: arthritis, strengthen muscles Stomach: calm upset stomach
Other mammals: Panda -- skins sold for $100,000 US Tapir: -- skin used to remove boils and keep away infections
More mammals: Tibetan antelope: -- fashionable hides -- called Shahtoosh -- In 1992, $2750 /lb -- 20000 killed annually (1999) -- exported to Italy, France Sumatran Rhino: -- horn: relieves headaches and fevers
More mammals: Musk deer: -- musk gland used -- to treat malaria, convulsions -- perfume to Germany, France -- $ 45,000 /kg Gibbons and macaques: --skins made into shoulder bags -- treatment for malaria
Solutions (possible) A college in San Francisco started promoting alternative ingredients for traditional medicines Actually pay people to work in national preserves Give people salt to safeguard wildlife
AFRICA Declined in exporting 1980’s – 1990’s Recent increase due to lifted ban on ivory Main problems: -- civil war -- hunting (subsistence) -- lack of funding
AFRICAN MAMMALS Main mammals effected in Africa –Elephants –Black and White Rhinoceros –Gorillas and other primates –Cheetahs and other big cats
elephant ELEPHANT Hunted for ivory jewelry piano keys carvings Hunted for meat
RHINOCEROS Hunted for : horns - medicinal value - dagger handles meat trade
gorilla Gorillas and other primates Hunted for: meat hands and other body parts young ones capture for zoos and private collections
Cheetahs and other big cats Hides used for trade Meat used to sell to other tribes Killed for predation on cattle
Africa Solutions: Burning stacks of horns to curb hunting Cutting of rhino horns before they get big More money to fund park rangers Public education Cease fire agreements to wars to stop accidental deaths Public education Cease fire agreements to wars to stop accidental deaths
Africa More Solutions: Hippo teeth and warthog tusks for ivory DNA tracking of ivory –New tests help differentiate elephant ivory from mammoth ivory (which is legal) –Tests also locate approximate location of kill
SOUTH AMERICA Recent member to illegal trade family Mostly trade for money Lack of education about endangered species
South America Brazil –Mostly bird smuggling: parrots, etc. Venezuela: –Mostly bird smuggling –Few mammals being smuggled –Just hides and other parts: ocelot skins
South America Problems: –Increase of population size –Decrease value of money –Had to increase exporting something –Rise in unemployment = need for cheep food = native species
SA Mammals CAPYBARA: Hide used for leather products Considered a delicacy OCELOT: Pelts used in fur industry Trapped for house cats
South America Another major problem: –Drug lords getting in on trade –Good, quick money –Stuffing drugs and other paraphernalia into mounted species
South America Solutions: -- Find other products to export (oil, minerals, etc.) -- help their economy -- increase value of their money -- employ more people
Intro to North America World’s largest importing/exporting region in the world. Trade is about 20 billion dollars worldwide, second only to narcotics. Discovery by European nations 300 years ago. Historically fur- Highest value commercially in the world.
United States High demand for live animals and exotic leathers. Largest wildlife consuming country in world. Center of commerce for worlds animals and plants. Canada and Mexico play similar roles but on a smaller scale.
Trade Two types usually Legal Illegal Majority of trade is illegal Many rules/regulations restricting trade. Some categories subject to restrictions are: Mammals, birds, amphibians, fish, insect, crustaceans, etc. Also any products manufactured from wildlife like feathers, skins, and eggs.
Trade Designated ports for entry. Baltimore, Chicago, Dallas, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle. Must have containers marked and labeled to show name of shipper and consignee and number and kind of contents.
Illegal Trade One third of world’s wildlife is in danger of extinction because of illegal trade. Profit is high, risk of getting caught is low. Animals worth more dead than alive. The more endangered, the more valuable.
Illegal Trade Worth more than $5 billion per year in the U.S. Most people involved are also involved with organized crimes like drugs and prostitution. Supplies are diminishing. Heading to Canada for supplies.
Canada Many Canadian animals are in high demand. National Parks are supermarket for major trophy heads. Animals are grown protected, now they are major target for poachers.
Targets High price getters Bighorn, Elk, Moose, Deer, Goats, and Bears. Also Fetuses, antlers and velvet, deer hooves, predatory bird feathers, gall bladders, teeth, paws, and claws of bears. Bears are one of main targets.
Black Bear Mainly targeted for gall bladder. Trade is similar to heroin, only scarcer. Valued part- bile Traditional medicines to treat burns, fever, stomach ulcers, heart disease, cancer, gall bladder problems, and hemorrhoids.
Black Bears Flight from Toronto to New Delhi crashed June 22, 1985. Two suitcases with gall bladders from 1,000 black bears was lost. 70 pounds $1 million in gall bladders Bear paws are also taken.
Poaching California population is decreasing. Biggest factor said to be poaching due to value of gall bladders. Most go to China
Viagra Involved?? Thought to slow use of animal parts from endangered species for aphrodisiacs. Slowed trade in harp seals genitals Claimed to be reason for market drying up. 10 years ago- $65 a piece. 8 years later- $6 Found viagra had very little impact. Decline underway before 1998.
Seals 92,000 killed last year in newfoundland. 282,000 in 1998 Reduced numbers caused by poor ice and oversaturated market. Now hunting/trade on rebound in Canada 214,000 this year already. $27 a piece. Up from $8.50 a year ago Set a legal quota on number to be taken.