DEFINITION: Refers to the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities and evolutionary relationships.
Carolus Linnaeus… Invented “Taxonomy”
The science of identifying, classifying, and naming living things. Founded by Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist in the 1700’s…he’s the “father of taxonomy”
The diversity of LIFE on earth :
WHY CLASSIFY? 1. To organize the number and diversity of living things. 2. To give scientific names.
MODERN CLASSIFICATION INCLUDES EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS: All organisms have a family tree…it shows relationships.
7 LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION: KINGS PLAY CHESS ON FINE GLASS SURFACES A pneumonic to remember the next page…
Levels of Classification (general to specific) KINGDOM is like the PHYLUM “ CLASS “ ORDER “ FAMILY “ GENUS “ SPECIES “
Comm on Name KingdomPhylum*ClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies Domest icated Dog Animalia (animals) ChordataMammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisC. familiaris Sugar Maple Plantae (plants) Magnoliophyt a RosidaeSapindalesAceraceaeAcerA. saccharum Bread Mold Fungi (fungi) ZygomycotaZygomycetesMucoralisMucoraceaeRhizopusR. stolonifer Tuberc ulosis Bact eriu m Prokaryotae (bacteria) Firmicutes Actinobacteri a Actinomycetale s Mycobacteriacea e Mycobacteriu m M. tuberculosis Pond Alga Protoctista (algae, molds, protozoans) ChlorophytaEuconjugataeZygnematalisZygnemataceaeSpirogyraS. crassa * In botanical nomenclature, "division" is used instead of "phylum." Sample of classification in 5 different organisms:
BRANCHING DIAGRAMS ( also called cladograms ) SHOWS THE EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ORGANISMS:
Sample “Tree of Life:
Why use scientific names?
NAMING NAMES! The Rules are as follows: First name is the genus and is always capitalized. ex. Tyrannosaurus Second name is the species and is always in lower case letters. ex. rex All organisms have two names: Both are underlined: Tyrannosaurus rex Words are italicized when not underlined.
Some examples of scientific names: Homo sapiens Canis familiarus Felis domestica Homarus americanis Quercus rubrum Lumbricus terrestris Rana pippins Felis leo Musca domestica Pan troglodytes
USED TO IDENTIFY UNKNOWN ORGANISMS USES PAIRS OF STATEMENTS THAT ARE “EITHER OR” TO FIND THE NAME OF SOMETHING
OUR SCIENCE CLASS DICHOTOMOUS KEY:
olives All living things Some ex of ways we classify…