Presentation on theme: "Natural Selection Part 2"— Presentation transcript:
1Natural Selection Part 2 MLKSpring 2006M.Elizabeth
2Chapter 10: Classification Chapter 10.1: Sorting it all outClassification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities.Why Classify It is a natural thing for humans to classify things so that we know how best to use them
3Why ClassifyBiologist classify organisms living and extinct in order to make sense because there are so many different kinds of organisms.Geologists have done the same by putting rocks into categories: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic.
4Biologist ClassifyClassifying living things makes it easier for biologists to see patterns and to find answers to the following questionsHow many known species are thereWhat are the characteristics of these speciesWhat are the relationships between these species
5B. Levels of Classification Six Kingdoms each of which are divided into phyla (phylum singular).Each phylum is divided into classes.Each class is divided into ordersEach order is divided into familiesEach family is divided into genera (genus singular)Each genus is divided into species.A species is a group of individuals that can mate and produce fertile offspring.
6Mnemonic - Rhyme King Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda King = Kingdom Phillip = PhylaCame = ClassOver = OrderFor = FamilyGrape = GenusSoda = Species
7Kingdoms have the most members and the classification system narrows the numbers to species which has one (even now sometimes scientist narrow to the subspecies - strains
8C. What is the basis for Classification Carolus Linnaeus is the “father” of taxonomy.Taxonomy is the science of identifying, classifying, and naming living things.Linnaeus was a Swedish physician and botanist who lived in the 1700’sLinnaeus classified organism by their shared characteristicsAfter Darwin – scientist looked also for presumed evolutionary relationships
10D. Naming NamesLinnaeus as father of taxonomy developed the two part scientific name for species.Latin or Greek names are used as building blocks for scientific namesThe first person to discover a species is given the opportunity to name itThe two part scientific name begins with the genus and is followed by the species. Both are underlined or italicized.
11E. Dichotomous KeysTaxonomists use guides known as dichotomous keys to aid in identifying unknown organisms.A Dichotomous key consits of several pairs of descriptive statements that have an either/or response.
1310.2 The Six KingdomsProtista (eukaryotic cells with characteristics like animal and plant)Archaebacteria – prokaryotic cells that live in extreme environmentsEubacteria – prokaryotic cells that live everywhere except extreme environments.Plantae – eukaryotic cells (plant cells) oldest living organismsFungi – eukaryotic cells like plants but do not perform photosynthesisAnimalia – eukaryotic cells, can move, have nervous systems