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Natural Selection Part 2 MLK Spring 2006

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2 Natural Selection Part 2 MLK Spring 2006

3 Chapter 10: Classification I.Chapter 10.1: Sorting it all out Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities. A.Why Classify It is a natural thing for humans to classify things so that we know how best to use them

4 Why Classify Biologist classify organisms living and extinct in order to make sense because there are so many different kinds of organisms. Geologists have done the same by putting rocks into categories: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic.

5 Biologist Classify Classifying living things makes it easier for biologists to see patterns and to find answers to the following questions –How many known species are there –What are the characteristics of these species –What are the relationships between these species

6 B. Levels of Classification Six Kingdoms each of which are divided into phyla (phylum singular). Each phylum is divided into classes. Each class is divided into orders Each order is divided into families Each family is divided into genera (genus singular) Each genus is divided into species. A species is a group of individuals that can mate and produce fertile offspring.

7 Mnemonic - Rhyme King Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda King = Kingdom Phillip = Phyla Came = Class Over = Order For = Family Grape = Genus Soda = Species

8 Kingdoms have the most members and the classification system narrows the numbers to species which has one (even now sometimes scientist narrow to the subspecies - strains

9 C. What is the basis for Classification Carolus Linnaeus is the father of taxonomy. Taxonomy is the science of identifying, classifying, and naming living things. Linnaeus was a Swedish physician and botanist who lived in the 1700s Linnaeus classified organism by their shared characteristics After Darwin – scientist looked also for presumed evolutionary relationships

10 Cladogram – branching diagram

11 D. Naming Names Linnaeus as father of taxonomy developed the two part scientific name for species. Latin or Greek names are used as building blocks for scientific names The first person to discover a species is given the opportunity to name it The two part scientific name begins with the genus and is followed by the species. Both are underlined or italicized.

12 E. Dichotomous Keys Taxonomists use guides known as dichotomous keys to aid in identifying unknown organisms. A Dichotomous key consits of several pairs of descriptive statements that have an either/or response.


14 10.2 The Six Kingdoms 1.Protista (eukaryotic cells with characteristics like animal and plant) 2.Archaebacteria – prokaryotic cells that live in extreme environments 3.Eubacteria – prokaryotic cells that live everywhere except extreme environments. 4.Plantae – eukaryotic cells (plant cells) oldest living organisms 5.Fungi – eukaryotic cells like plants but do not perform photosynthesis 6.Animalia – eukaryotic cells, can move, have nervous systems

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