Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 America and the World Section 1 The US was ready to assume her place as one of the great nations on earth and flex her economic and military."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11 America and the World Section 1 The US was ready to assume her place as one of the great nations on earth and flex her economic and military muscle towards this goal. Between 1876 and 1915 vast areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America were under the control of a few industrialized nations. The quest was centered around markets, raw materials and power and prestige. Industrialized Nations could produce far more than they could consume so they sought markets and materials in other countries and colonized them to protect them from foreign competition. The irony of course being…..
America’s Place Supporters of Expansion Reasons for supporting “Expansion”: Duty to spread democracy Christianity Uplift “primitive cultures” Why the US Wanted to Acquire Hawaii Fertile soil/good climate- sugar, pineapples Good place for naval bases Good place for refueling/unloading Reasons from above
Early American Involvement in Hawaii America had an early influence on Hawaii: Trading and Whaling Protestant Missionaries American investors in sugar plantations 1875 treaty that exempted Hawaiian sugar from US tariffs- no treaties or land to any other countries The Hawaiian League forced Kalakaua (King) to sign at gunpoint a treaty limiting his power to a figurehead and Hawaiians right to hold office in their own country. This created hostility among locals because of the “Bayonet Constitution” 1890 McKinley Tariff- Ended the 1875 exemption and gave US producers a 2 cent subsidy per pound for sugar- result was a drop in the price of sugar and downturn in the Hawaiian economy
A Nationalist Queen Liliuokalani- followed her brother who died in She wanted to regain “Hawaii for the Hawaiians” The net result was that the supporters of Annexation took over the gov’t buildings and declared an end to the monarchy and set up a provisional gov’t of their own. Without permission, John L. Stevens- the American minister of Hawaii- called on the marines and they confined the Queen to her palace and proclaimed Hawaii to be under US “Protection”. Sanford B. Dole was instated as President Liliuokalani- feared many Hawaiians would be killed so she abandoned her throne
How the US “Officially” Acquired Hawaii Denied at first: The new gov’t was denied by anti-imperialists and Democratic Senators Newly elected Grover Cleveland withdrew the treaty and ordered an investigation Dole (think pineapple) refused to step down Cleveland didn’t want to use military force Finally accepted: President McKinley on July 7, 1898 annexed Hawaii- most of the native inhabitants weren’t very happy
US Involvement in China Trade between the US and China officially began in 1784 when the “Empress of China” sailed into a Chinese port Spheres of Influence- In 1843 China officially opened 5 ports for US trading. Why only 5? In 1895 Japan attacked China then Britain, France, Germany and Russia carved out regions of China they controlled- SOI The Open Door Policy Senator Henry Cabot Lodge demanded that the US be granted free access to Chinese markets. Secretary of State John Hay gave Europe 3 demands. 1.All Chinese ports open to all nations 2.Chinese officials collect all duties and tariffs 3.Equal transportation rates to all nations The Boxer Rebellion- Chinese resented outside influence and a secret society Fists of Righteous Harmony formed to kick out foreigners. Foreign countries responded and forced the Chinese to pay 333 million for damages. Much more to this story….
An Emerging Japan Japan’s invasion of China in 1894 marked its emergence as an imperial power Japan was “persuaded “ to open its doors in 1854 when Commodore Matthew Perry sailed into Edo in 1854 with a fleet of 7 warships Japan quickly became an industrialized power and in 1904 Japan began a war with Russia over Manchuria (China region) Japan won several battles TR was afraid that either sides victory would hurt the US so he brokered a peace treaty- winning himself the Nobel Peace Prize This was the beginning of the US –Japanese struggle for supremacy in the Pacific and China To demonstrate the US’s resolve, TR sent a fleet of 4 destroyers and 16 battleships on a world-wide tour- one stop was Yokohama
Chapter 11 Section 2 War With Spain The US had several reasons to want to intervene in Cuba Cuba was near our borders Chance to drive Spain out of the Western Hemisphere Chance to flex our nation’s military muscle Newspapers were making it a national interest story In the late 1800’s Cuba simmered with unrest- there were several unsuccessful rebellions- the Spanish exiled many of the rebellion leaders like Jose Marti.
José Martí Jose Marti was a poet and joined the revolt when he was 15. He was kicked out of Cuba twice and ended up in NY. While in NY he wrote poems and newspaper articles promoting Cuban independence. Marti joined another revolt in 1895 and became a martyr for the cause- he was killed Spanish General Valeriano Weyler arrived on the scene in 1896 and was brutal- 200,000 Cubans died from starvation and disease in his concentration camps How do you think this went over in the US media mmm
The US Reacts Many Americans saw the Cuban revolution as similar to the … The Media Weyler was branded as the “butcher” William Randolph Hearst’s NY Journal and Joseph Pulitzer’s NY World sensationalized the story to attract readers Hearst in particular used “Yellow Journalism”- sensationalistic reporting- he actually saved his father’s paper- the Examiner
The Maine Incident Leads to War Hearst said “Give me a picture and I’ll give you a war.” Enrique Dupuy de Lôme- Spain’s minister to the US, said in an intercepted letter that President McKinley was weak *This was blown up by the yellow journalists to be “the worst insult to the US in its history”. In response the US sent the battleship Maine to Cuba On February the Maine mysteriously blows up killing 260 “DESTRUCTION OF THE WAR SHIP MAINE WAS THE WORK OF THE ENEMY” SCREAMED THE HEADLINES IN THE jOURNAL
USS Maine Before it Exploded
USS Maine After it Exploded
War With Spain On April 20, 1898 Congress recognized Cuba’s independence and pledged to use military force to bring it about. Teller Amendment- declared that when Cuba was free we would let them rule themselves Ironically- the First battle was in the Philippines. TR had Commodore George Dewey move his fleet from Hong Kong to Manilla Bay and we quickly destroyed the Spanish fleet on May 1, With the help of Philippine rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo, Dewey was able to surround the Spanish forces and they surrendered
Fighting in Cuba * The US was ill- prepared for battle but in the most famous battle TR led his “Rough Riders” up San Juan Hill and to a commanding position that helped in the Cuban victory The situation kept getting worse for Spain: July 3 rd the US sank the Spanish fleet off the Cuban coast The Spanish were defeated in Puerto Rico Cost to Spain: The US won Puerto Rico and Guam Spain was out of Cuba For 20 Million the US got the Philippines
Uproar over the Philippines What to do with the Philippines? Establish democracy there Trading post and refueling station Rule its government and its people Keep out foreign powers Ultimately we ended up fighting a brutal war against the Filipinos
War in the Philippines Emilio “remember me” Aguinaldo set up a provisional government and warned the US that they would go to war if the US tried to take forcible possession. Congress approved a treaty in 1899 annexing the Philippines and for the next three years one of the most brutal wars in history occurred. Hundreds of thousands of Filipino’s died and 4,000 US soldiers lost their lives. End Result 1902 Philippine Government Act (Organic Act)- established a 2 house legislature. The US would appoint the governor and the upper house and the Filipinos would elect the lower house The Jones Act of 1916-Filipinos elected both houses On July 4, 1946-The Philippines were granted full independence
Chapter 11 Section 3 Expansion in Latin America Governing Cuba General Leonard Wood was appointed as governor of Cuba in 1899 Platt Amendment- made Cuba a US protectorate- this meant that we agreed to protect Cuba from others but the US reserved the right to intervene in internal affairs. We also obtained some military bases- Guantanamo. Governing Puerto Rico The Foraker Act of 1900-The US would appoint the governor and the upper house and the PR’s would elect the lower The Jones Act of PR’s could elect both house and PR’s were granted US Citizenship PR became a self governing Commonwealth
The Panama Canal Building the canal would cut time and money for business and the military The French began it in 1880 but failed miserably In 1901 Secretary of State John Hay began negotiations with Columbia. A deal was thought to have been reached but the Columbian legislature held out for more $ TR was ticked and with help from French engineer Philippe Bunau-Varilla a revolution was launched with the help of US warships Panama was declared an independent nation and the Hay- Bunau-Varilla Treaty gave the US total control over a 10 mile wide canal zone
Building the Canal Problems Harsh working conditions Shortage of Labor and materials Yellow Fever Solutions John F. Stevens was put in charge as chief engineer and architect Dr. William Gorgas drained swamps and defeated yellow fever and malaria Brought in huge machines and labor from the West Indies Completed on August 15, 1914-SS Ancon 1 st ship
Important Documents 1.Monroe Doctrine- (1823) Stated that the US was the protector of the Western Hemisphere- keep Europe out. 2.The Roosevelt Corollary- (1904) Gave the US police powers in the Western Hemispheres- If a country couldn’t keep itself in order or wasn’t friendly to US interests we would come in and clean up the mess for our benefit. *1916 Dominican Republican civil war- we stayed until 1924
$Dollar Diplomacy$ Taft favored substituting “dollars for bullets” One of Taft’s ideas was to replace European loans to Latin America with US loans. Why would this help the US? By 1914 the US had 1.6 Billion invested in LA mainly in mines, RR’s and banana and sugar plantations- money means involvement EX. Nicaragua borrowed big bucks but gave us the right to intercede in their country if necessary President Woodrow Wilson thought democracy would keep Europe out of LA. In 1915 a revolution occurred in Haiti and US Marines forced Haiti to accept a treaty putting the US in charge. We stayed until some 1,500 Haitians died fighting the US
Chapter 11 Section 4: Conflict With Mexico Main Issue: Porfirio Diaz came to power after 66 years of war and unrest. He crushed his opponents and stabilized the country. The problem was he was a brutal dictator and few of the benefits of Mexican wealth reached the common person and elections were rigged. Under Diaz’s leadership foreign investors, mainly American, felt safe in their investments and expanded the RR’s and mining dramatically.
Opposition to Diaz Francisco Madero- He ran for president in 1910 and Diaz had him arrested. He eventually fled to San Antonio and drew up the Plan of Luis Potosi where he called upon Mexicans to take up arms against Diaz Emiliano Zapata- Led a rebel (against Diaz) army in the south composed of mostly American Indian peasants. He began his rebellion because he thought it was unfair that his bosses horses lived much better than the workers. In May 1911 Diaz was overthrown and Francisco Madero became president of Mexico The US recognized Madero’s election and banned arm sales to his opponents Diaz’s nephews led a resistance movement against Madero and the situation was temporarily calmed when Madero’s commanding general Victoriano Huerta seized power and imprisoned Madero 4 major revolutionary armies continued their resistance against Huerta
US Intervention President Wilson was outraged by Madero’s murder and lifted the arms embargo- he called this “watchful waiting” Tampico- US marines went ashore in the port of Tampico and were arrested by Huerta supporters but quickly released. Wilson and the admiral took this as a huge insult and used this as a reason to request and get support for the use of force against Mexico The Occupation of Veracruz- Wilson learned that a German ship was transporting arms to Huerta. We stopped the ship and bombarded and landed in Veracruz. In response Argentina, Brazil and Chile (ABC Powers) met and called for Huerta’s resignation- he refused but soon fled to Spain
The Revolution Dies Down By 1915 Pancho Villa and Zapata controlled 2/3’s of Mexico- the country was in chaos. Venustiano Carranza re-entered Mexico in 1915 and promised to protect American lives and property. The US recognized his government. Carranza’s army defeated Villa in two major battles and the US backing Carranza led Villa to take revenge on Americans. Villa strikes: In March 1916 Villa led troops into Columbus, New Mexico. The results were 17 Americans dead and 100 of Villa’s troops. President Wilson ordered General John J. Pershing to pursue Villa and return him dead or alive. He was hard to find and eventually the US had 150,000 on the border. Wilson realized this could lead to war and called off the troops.
Carranza in Power Carranza called a constitutional convention in December of On February 5, 1917 a constitution was reached that included the following: Placed the interests of the general welfare above the common man Provided protection for workers- 8 hour work day, child labor, right to form unions and collective bargaining National ownership of all of Mexico’s mineral, oil and water rights *This last part would have an important impact on relationships with US oil companies in the 1930’s