Presentation on theme: "War with Spain. In the late 1800’s Cuba was in conflict Cuba was still being controlled by Spain Cubans wanted independence from Spain and launched."— Presentation transcript:
War with Spain
In the late 1800’s Cuba was in conflict Cuba was still being controlled by Spain Cubans wanted independence from Spain and launched several unsuccessful revolts
Cuba’s citizens are willing to fight Jose Marti ▪ Poet and Revolutionary ▪ Participated in a revolt against Spain when he was only 15 ▪ Was exiled to Spain, and later to New York City ▪ Wrote to encourage revolt in Cuba and for exiles to invade ▪ Became a MARTYR for Cuban independence when he was killed in a battle in 1895
How does Spain react? Spain refuses to let Cuba become independent Gen. Valeriano Weyler put down the revolt ▪ Weyler forced farmers into concentration camps ▪ Weyler’s acts led to 200,000 Cubans dying from starvation
How did the Americans view the Struggle of the Cubans? Many compared it to the United States’ struggle with Great Brittain Called Gen. Weyler “The Butcher”
The Influence of the Media William Randolph Hearst ▪ American journalist interested in the struggle of the Cubans ▪ Took over the San Francisco Examiner in 1887
“The newspaper is the greatest force in civilization…Newspapers form and express public opinion. They suggest and control legislation. They declare wars. They punish criminals, especially the powerful. They reward with approving publicity the good deeds of citizens everywhere. The newspapers control the nation because they REPRESENT THE PEOPLE!” -William Randolph Hearst
The Maine Incident Did President McKinley want to enter the conflict between Spain and Cuba? McKinley was weary of war because of his involvement in the Civil War. Spain’s Minister to the US called McKinley “weak, and a bidder for the admiration of a crowd” How did Americans react?
The Maine Incident (cntd.) The USS Maine, a US naval ship was sent to Havana to protect US lives and property February 15, the USS Maine blows up ▪ 260 sailors are killed ▪ The New York Journal’s headline read: “DESTRUCTION OF THE WAR SHIP MAINE WAS THE WORK OF AN ENEMY” ▪ April 25, Congress declared war on Spain
April 20, 1898 Congress adopts the Teller Amendment ▪ The US recognized Cuba’s independence from Spain ▪ Stated once Cuba won its independence, the US would “leave the government and control of the Island to its people”
Fighting in the Philippines May 1, 1898 ▪ Commodore George Dewey sent a fleet across Manilla Bay ▪ Spanish fired shots at the American fleet but were out of range to hit ▪ The US Navy’s ships returned fire and easily defeat the Spaniards.
Fighting in the Philippines (contd.) Emilio Aguinaldo ▪ Leader of a rebel army of Philipino Patriots ▪ Helped Dewey force Spanish forces to surrender in the Philippines on August 14, 1898
Fighting in Cuba Why was the battle in Cuba more difficult to fight than the battles in the Philippines? ▪ Weather ▪ Uniforms ▪ Troops (28,000)
Fighting in Cuba (contd.) Teddy Roosevelt ▪ Resigned his post of Secretary of the Navy ▪ Led the “Rough Riders” ▪ Fought without horses ▪ Charged San Juan Hill on foot July 3, 1898 ▪ US Navy sank the Spanish fleet off the coast of Cuba ▪ Led to more than 400 Spanish Casualties ▪ 2 weeks later, Spanish troops in Cuba surrendered
Fighting in Cuba (contd.) A costly war for Spain, while the US gains ▪ Spain forfeited all claim to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the United States ▪ Gave up control of the Philippines to the US in exchange for $20 Million. ▪ America proves itself as an imperial power ▪ However, 5,400 American lives are lost
The debate over annexation Some Americans questioned if annexation was the right thing to do. ▪ Why? ▪ What was the Anti-Imperialist League? Expansionists strongly supported Annexation. ▪ Why? ▪ What was Charles Denby’s argument? Who wins?
Conquest and early rule The US approved a treaty annexing the Philippines on February 6, Emilio Aguinaldo led the Philippine people in a revolt against US rule for 3 years. ▪ Hundreds of thousands of Philipinos and 4,000 US soldiers were killed. What was the Phillipine Government Act? What was the Jones Act of 1916? What happened on July 4, 1946