Presentation on theme: ". Medieval Absolute Monarch o Medieval: Weak kings, little power over feudal lords, ruled only lands belonging to family o Kings begin to assert."— Presentation transcript:
Medieval Absolute Monarch o Medieval: Weak kings, little power over feudal lords, ruled only lands belonging to family o Kings begin to assert power over the nobles (Sp, Rus, Prus, Eng, Fr, Aus) By 17 th C. king had become an absolute monarch Strengthening of Power o Crusades killed many lords o Rising middle class supported monarch for protection of property and trade o Gunpowder: monarch had a powerful weapon against feudal lords o Reformation: monarch got power from Church o Awakening nationalism Divine Right of Kings o Theory justified absolute power King ruled by God’s authority Obedience to king was obedience to God King could do no wrong Sun Gate a Versailles
1066 William the Conqueror takes England o Strengthens power of king Domesday book for collection of taxed Made all feudal lords swear direct allegiance to him Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) o England claimed the French Throne o Spurred nationalism (proud of victories, Loss of French territory made them focus on English land) War of the Roses (1455-1485) o Civil War over claims to the Throne; Henry VII (Tudor) crowned king o Made the king powerful by: Killing many nobles, thus removing rivals for power and increasing wealth as king claimed dead nobles’ property Middle class supported king because of suffering during war Tudors were capable rulers House of York: white Rose House of Lancaster: Red Rose
Henry VII (1485-1509) o Re-established monarchy's authority over nobles, furthered trade and prosperity Henry VIII (1507-1547) o Began the Anglican Church (Church of England) Elizabeth I (1558-1603) o Protestant o Defeated Spain, thus making England a world power Summary o Tudors expanded government authority, dominated Parliament o Economic prosperity, England a world power o Nationalism, immense popularity After Elizabeth dies, her cousin James I (Stuart) becomes king o Stuarts are unpopular and English people rebel
8 th -10 th C. Charlemagne and his descendants rule Capetian Rule (10 th -14 th C) o Hugh Capet becomes king in 987, controlled only area around Paris o Struggled to weaken feudal lords, seized Normandy from England (feudal lord), Forced Church into “Bablylonian Captivity” Hundred Years’ War o Spurred nationalism o Lords died, strengthening monarch’s power along with wealth from seized British lands In the 15 th C. French Kings consolidated power (Louis XI)
Religious Wars o Civil Wars in France ended when Catholic Henry IV (Henry Navarre) takes throne For 200 years the Bourbons (Henry’s line) would rule France Cardinal Richelieu, minister to King Louis XIII, Guides France (1624-1642) o Attained supremacy for king Destroyed nobles’ castles, transferred local power from nobles to government officials o World power for France Richelieu led France in 30 Years’ War in support of Protestants Defeated Hapsburg rivals (ruled Austria and Spain)
Height of Absolutism o Ruled by Divine Right, the Sun King o “L’état c’est moi” o Build palace of Versailles, extravagant court o Never convened the Estates-General Economics o Finance minister: Jean Baptiste Colbert Better farming methods Roads and canals Protective tariffs Established colonies o Louis revoked Edict of Nantes Thousands of Protestants fled France (hurt economy) Louis tried to expand France’s borders, to limited success After Louis’ death, French are tired of wars, taxes, absolutism o Louis XVI will be overthrown by the French Revolution
Unification of Spain (11 th -15 th C.) o Christians and Muslims in Spain warring, Christian rule expands Ferdinand and Isabella o 1469 Ferdinand and Isabella married, unifying Christian Spain 1492 conquered Grenada, last Moorish stronghold o Increased power by: Weakening nobility by destroying castles Weakened church by gaining right to appoint Church officials Enacted laws without approval of Spanish legislature (Cortes) o Reconquista Persecuted and eventually drove Muslims and Jews from Spain Lost merchants and skilled workers o Foreign Affairs Financed Columbus Political marriages for their 3 daughters Joanna married Phillip of Hapsburg Charles V Ferdinand and Isabella Fear the Ruff!!
Charles V = Hapsburg: Controlled Spain, Netherlands, Sicily, southern Italy, Austria o 1520, becomes the Holy Roman Emperor Fought French, Turks, Protestant Germans 1556 Renounces the throne and joins a monastery o Brother Ferdinand becomes ruler of Austria and HRE o Son becomes Phillip II of Spain Reign of Phillip II o Unable to suppress Dutch revolt o Could not stop English raids on ships in Caribbean o Armada defeated by Elizabeth I o Inefficient government, crushing taxes, and stagnant economy led to Spain’s decline as a world power
Brief History o Settled by Norse and Slavs in 8 th and 9 th C. o 10 th C. Converted to Eastern Orthodox by Byzantine o 13 th C. Conquered by Mongols – 200 years Ivan the Great (1462-1505) o Grand Duke of Moscow, overthrew Mongols o Gained power by: extending land and limiting power of nobles o Grandson: Ivan the Terrible, used cruelty to extend power, first to be called Czar Ivan died, civil wars fought for throne 1630 Michal Romanov seized throne, Romanovs would rule for 300 years Ivan the Great Ivan the Terrible (He’s watching you!!)
Peter the Great (1682-1725) o Strengthened position by Creating strong, loyal army Crushing revolts of nobles Royal governors to replace local officials Extended control over Church o Westernization of Russia Admired Western culture; introduced ideas of science, education, military, industry Ordered males to shave and don western garments Little impression on majority of populace o Sought a warm water seaport, fought Sweden and gained new seaport and capital, St. Petersburg Catherine the Great (1762-1796) o German wife of czar, deposed him o Fought the Turks Gained northern coast of Black Sea, right to sail through Dardanelles to Med. Sea o Joined with Austria and Prussia to eliminate Poland (divided it into 3) o Made Russia into a major power
Hohenzollern Rule (15 th -18 th C.) o Family of German nobles acquired Prussia and established Autocratic Government Well-trained army Expanded territory by marriage, war, and diplomacy o 500 years Hohenzollerns ruled Prussia 1871 Prussia unified German states, Hohenzollern king became king of Germany o Frederick the Great (1740-1786) Military genius, aggressive foreign policy 1740 seized province of Silesia from Austria; eventually evolved into the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) (Aus, Ger, Fr, Vs. Pr, Eng) Shared in Partition of Poland Made Prussia an 18 th C. European power Prussia and Hohenzollern land in Germany
Hapsburgs Acquired Austria in the 13 th C. o Ruled Austria for 600 years Hapsburg Rule o Failures: Lost Switzerland in the late 15 th C 16 th C. failed to stop Protestantism in Germany 17 th C. failed to defeat France in 30 Years’ War o Achievements Greatly expanded domain through marriages and alliances Ended Turkish Siege of Vienna in 17 th C. and drove Muslims from Central Europe 18 th C. ruled a vast Austrian empire Rulers o Maria Theresa (1740-1780) Most European rulers wanted to forbid her rule, she endured Lost Silesia to Prussia, but gained part of Poland Governed efficiently and promoted Prosperity o Joseph II (1780-1790) Subjected Catholic Church to state control and seized church lands Weakened nobles by taxing them and cancelled many obligations of their serfs Abolished local self-government
Achievements o Unified countries and provided strong central Governments Weaknesses o Nation depended on ability of one person, often sacrificed nation for own interest o Countless wars o Disregarded needs of common people Absolutism Attacked o 18 th C. philosophers in the Enlightenment Enlightened Despots o Some rulers tried to justify absolutism “Enlightened Despots” Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, Joseph II o Failed because: did not remove class distinctions, autocracy, unfair taxes, wars o Could not ensure good government by their successors
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.