Presentation on theme: "Absolute Monarchy and France"— Presentation transcript:
1Absolute Monarchy and France Main IdeaHenry IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV strengthened the French monarchy, with Louis XIV setting the example of an absolute monarch for the rest of Europe.ObjectivesIdentify how did Henry IV end France’s wars of religion.How did Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu strengthen the French monarchy?Identify the main events in the monarchy of Louis XIV.
3The King Becomes Emperor powerful Hapsburg, Bourbons and Tudor families ruled as absolute monarchAbsolute monarch, ruler whose power not limited by having to consult with nobles, common people or their representativesAbsolute MonarchAbsolute monarchs believed they ruled by divine rightMonarchs received power from God, must not be challenged1500 through 1700s, absolute monarchs tried to impose their will across much of Europe, lands beyondMonarchs power was possible because of wealth brought back from colonies in the Americas.Imposing Their Will
4Religious War and Henry IV Soon after Protestant Reformation began in Germany, it spread to France1560s, one in ten French was Huguenot, French Calvinist ProtestantMany noble families HuguenotsLarge number of Protestants threatened Catholic French monarchyMonarchy thought all should share “one king, one law, one religion”Religious conflict a challenge to absolute monarchy
5Conflict and a New King Massacre Henry IV In France fighting broke out between Catholics and Huguenots1572, Catholic queen Catherine of France ordered Huguenots in Paris killedAssassins started with nobles in city for Henry of Navarre’s weddingEvent became known as Saint Bartholomew’s Day MassacreViolence spread; final Huguenot death toll up to 70,000MassacreHenry of Navarre denied his religion, escaped deathLater in line to be king, but as Huguenot had to fight Catholic troops to claim throne1593, won acceptance by converting to CatholicismCrowned as Henry IVExplained conversion by saying, “Paris is well worth a mass.”Henry IV
6Édouard Debat-Ponsan: Un matin devant la porte du Louvre 1880
7Compromise Progress Henry knew compromise needed to restore peace Edict of Nantes in 1598; gave Huguenots limited freedom of worshipAlso, right to hold office, rule in 200 cities where in majoritySubjects no longer had to follow religion of throne; for French Catholics, ended religious wars, but Catholicism official religionProgressHenry IV then focused on repairing war-torn countryImproved financial situation, eliminated debt, built up surplusCreated new industries, encouraged agriculture, stimulated trade, drained swamps, built canals, roadsBecame one of France’s most respected monarchs
8The Monarchy of Louis XIV Richelieu died in 1642, Louis XIII, 1643; Louis XIV crownedRuled during time of great power, prosperity and gloryHis reign had lasting impact—both positive and negativeLouis XIV also became king at young age, with mother as regentCardinal Mazarin, chief minister after Richelieu, provided adviceLouis raised to be king, taught skills needed from childhoodRise of the Sun KingYoung king supremely confident in ability to ruleWhen Mazarin died, 18-year-old Louis declared he would run government himself“I am the state,” he declaredConfident in Ability to RuleLouis XIV chose the sun as his personal symbol, implying that the world revolved around him. He thus became known as the Sun King.
10Réception du Grand Condé par Louis XIV (Versailles, 1674)
11Absolutism at Versailles Absolute MonarchyLouis XIV retained absolute power for rest of long reignBegan tradition of absolute monarchy to last more than centuryDemanded to be in charge of all military, political, economic initiativesCentral GovernmentDrew power to himself, deprived nobles of influenceBuilt palace outside Paris at Versailles; demanded nobles visit regularlyNobles gained prestige being servants at Versailles court, not by fightingAbsolutely DependentAdditionally, Louis urged nobles to develop expensive new habits of dressing, dining, and gamblingAs nobles grew poorer, had to depend on king’s generosity just to survive
16Spectacle at Versailles Versailles was a grand spectacle of kingly powerLouis XIV’s style, ceremony emphasized political strengthPractically every moment of king’s day required rituals by bowing courtiersEating, dressing, walking in garden, all required a ritualLouis always knew who had given what he considered proper attention
18Louis and Protestantism Louis smashed power of HuguenotsEdict of Nantes had protected Huguenots since reign of Henry IVEven Richelieu had not be able to eliminate that protection1685, Louis revoked edict, outlawed Protestantism in FranceOver 200,000 Huguenots fled—prosperous merchants, artisansLoss of their skills, wealth helped cause financial crisisLouis’ finances always a concernGrand lifestyle cost great deal of moneyTreasury saved by efficient policies of Jean-Baptiste ColbertLimited imports, increased exportsEven reduced government’s debtMoney and the MilitaryLouis needed cash to build up military, expand French territoryEnlarged army to more than 200,000 disciplined soldiersSpent money on good equipmentWas most powerful ruler in Europe, taking France to war four timesMost Powerful Ruler
19War over a Throne No heir in Spain Successor Alliances Louis wanted to increase power beyond France’s borders; wars cost dearlyMost costly war, War of the Spanish SuccessionBegan when Spanish king died without an heirSuccessorThree rulers claimed they should name successorLouis wanted Spanish throne for oldest sonOther European monarchs did not want France, Spain so closely connectedAlliances1701, England, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire went to war against FranceFighting not limited to Europe, spread to North America as wellConflict connected to phase of French and Indian Wars
21English: Locator map of the competing sides of the War of the Spanish Succession. Blue: Great Britain, Dutch Republic, Portugal with more. Green: Spain, France with more.
221713, after many defeats, Louis accepted the Treaty of Utrecht Treaty said Louis’s grandson got Spanish throneAlso said France, Spain never to be ruled by same monarchLouis had to give up most of territory he had takenWar benefited England at expense of France, SpainDespite setback, Louis XIV remained in power until death, 1715—still absolute monarch