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Notes on the History of Elizabethan England and Shakespeare Himself.

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Presentation on theme: "Notes on the History of Elizabethan England and Shakespeare Himself."— Presentation transcript:

1 Notes on the History of Elizabethan England and Shakespeare Himself

2 King Henry VIII (Ruled England 1509-1547) Known for breaking with Church + Many Wives (6)

3 King Henry and His Wives Catherine of Aragon 1509-1532 Anne Boleyn 1532-May 19, 1536 Jane Seymour May 29, 1536-1537 Anne Cleves Jan. 6, 1540-July 12, 1540 Catherine Howard July 28, 1540-1542 Catharine Parr July 1543-1547

4 Catherine of Aragon (1509-1532) Marries Henry to keep alliance with Spain Bears 7 children; only Mary lives through infancy Henry starts new church, annuls marriage, banishes Catherine

5 Anne Boleyn (1532-May 19, 1536) Gives birth to daughter, Elizabeth, 1533 Henry accuses her of unfaithfulness Beheaded May 19, 1536

6 Jane Seymour (May 29, 1536-1537) Gives birth to son, Edward, 1537 Dies from complications in childbirth

7 Anne of Cleves (Jan. 6, 1540-July 12, 1540) Henry marries her for political reasons -- alliance with Cleves (part of modern Germany) Officially divorces her July 12, 1540

8 Catherine Howard (July 28, 1540-1542) Anne Boleyn’s 2nd cousin Anne of Cleves’ maid in waiting She has affairs Beheaded 1542

9 Catharine Parr (1543-1547) Henry’s last wife Acts as Henry’s nurse when he becomes sick

10 England After Henry When Henry dies, Edward comes to the throne (he was 9!) Edward dies when he’s 16, and “Bloody Mary” takes the throne

11 Queen Elizabeth I (Ruled England 1558-1603) Mary (a Catholic) dies and Elizabeth (a Protestant) comes to the throne in 1558 Under Elizabeth, the arts flourished and educational institutions were established. England also became a military force -Defeat of the Spanish Armada 1588 Never married, so known as the “Virgin Queen” Followed by King James (1603- 1625)

12 Defeating the Spanish Armada

13 Life in Elizabethan England Public Life Gossip: Those who are “in the know” are popular. Crowds and public squares were volatile --> anything could set them off! No free discussion of rulers = High treason! Spies everywhere Punishments: Upper class = beheading Lower class = drawing and quartering

14 Life in Elizabethan England Family Life Children and parents = very formal –Never disobey –Children raised by nurses Women had no legal rights –All their money and possessions went to the husband –Literacy Rate was Low (W-10% M-30%) –Single wealthy women were fought over –Married at the age of 11 or 12 –Father had the right to choose husbands for daughters -- negotiated for power Marriage = crucial to a woman –No legal rights without it LOVE Romantic Love was ALWAYS discouraged -- a good match was more important HONOR = very important! Defend family

15 Heart of England = LONDON Tower Of London Fort for protecting the city from invasions Royal Palace Prison

16 London: Sanitation Horrible! Streets were filthy –No sewers or drains –Gutters were in the middle of the street –Garbage & chamber pots emptied in the streets --piled up until a rain Men walked in the middle of street to protect the ladies The Plague = incurable Overcrowding led to slums, filth Plague carried by fleas on rats -- not known then Thought to be God’s wrath on wicked people Two outbreaks killed 1/4 of the population in Shakespeare’s time Life expectancy = 48 years Time to travel to “New World” = 1-2 months

17 Theater’s Place in the World: One Side The Court Elizabeth and James totally supported theater Shakespeare’s company, “The King’s Men,” were named for King James

18 Theater’s Place in the World: The Other Side City Officials Time of Puritanism = Very conservative Thought theater was evil, satanic, and destroyed public morals

19 Theater’s Place in the World Therefore: Theater was not allowed in London proper, within the official city limits Instead, all theaters were in Southwark, just across the Thames, and outside city lines

20 Shakespeare’s Theater: The Globe Variety of tickets, from the pit (groundlings) to the gallery Loud, obnoxious, intelligent crowds Performances lasted “at least two hours,” and started around 2 PM (the middle of the working day) Trumpet blew to signal the start Public - open to all, though could not be advertised Showed type of play by color of the flag White = Comedy Red = History Black = Tragedy

21 A Tour of the Globe

22 William Shakespeare: The Bard Himself

23 England-A Spiritually Divided Country When Henry starts his own church, that splits the country into Catholic and Protestant Shakespeare’s family has Catholic roots, but he supports the Queen

24 Shakespeare: Early Life Vital Stats: Born April 23, 1564 Dies April 23, 1616 Early Life: Stratford on Avon, England Marries Anne Hathaway (said she saved his life) They have three kids: –Susanna, Hamnet and Judith He moves to London in 1590s

25 Stratford On Avon: Shakespeare’s Hometown Shakespeare’s Grammar School

26 London: The Big City

27 Shakespeare in London Became a leading actor and playwright by 1592 In 1594, Romeo and Juliet was first performed -- all male actors! By 1595, he’s the hottest playwright in London Writes 37 plays (2 per year) Performed plays in theaters, palaces, inns, and homes of nobility 1610 -- returned to Stratford

28 How Shakespeare Changed Theatre After -- Professional Adds sets, lighting, multiple stages, and the box office. Theater is new, akin to the start of TV Before -- Performed by roaming troupes for a meal or bed. Actors considered vagrants Performed lewd plays to religious ones.

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