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IB Music SL Art Music Unit 6 Baroque Era. 19. The Baroque Spirit The Baroque Era (1600–1750) The Baroque Era (1600–1750) Came to a close with the death.

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Presentation on theme: "IB Music SL Art Music Unit 6 Baroque Era. 19. The Baroque Spirit The Baroque Era (1600–1750) The Baroque Era (1600–1750) Came to a close with the death."— Presentation transcript:

1 IB Music SL Art Music Unit 6 Baroque Era

2 19. The Baroque Spirit The Baroque Era (1600–1750) The Baroque Era (1600–1750) Came to a close with the death of JS Bach Came to a close with the death of JS Bach “baroque” derived from the Portuguese word barocco meaning an irregular shaped pearl. “baroque” derived from the Portuguese word barocco meaning an irregular shaped pearl. Turbulent change in politics, science, arts Turbulent change in politics, science, arts The conquest of the new world The conquest of the new world Middle class acquired wealth and power Middle class acquired wealth and power Empires clashed for world control Empires clashed for world control contradictions that defined the era contradictions that defined the era Poverty and luxury Poverty and luxury Idealism and oppression Idealism and oppression Out of these contradictions evolved the pomp and splendor of Baroque art Out of these contradictions evolved the pomp and splendor of Baroque art Elaborate decoration and grandeur Elaborate decoration and grandeur

3 A foreshadowing of the transition from Renaissance to Baroque was evident in the work of Michelangelo ( ) with turbulent figures, twisted bodies in struggle and drama – color and movement were also apparent in other artists A foreshadowing of the transition from Renaissance to Baroque was evident in the work of Michelangelo ( ) with turbulent figures, twisted bodies in struggle and drama – color and movement were also apparent in other artists

4 The Baroque was an era of absolute monarchy and modeled on the court at Versailles of Louis XIV in France The Baroque was an era of absolute monarchy and modeled on the court at Versailles of Louis XIV in France He stated, “I am the State”, which summed up a way of life in which all art and culture served the ruler. He stated, “I am the State”, which summed up a way of life in which all art and culture served the ruler. Courts maintained elaborate musical establishments, including opera troupes, chapel choirs and orchestras. Courts maintained elaborate musical establishments, including opera troupes, chapel choirs and orchestras. Baroque opera was the favorite diversion of the aristocracy. Baroque opera was the favorite diversion of the aristocracy.

5 Middle classes created a culture of their own Middle classes created a culture of their own Music-making took place in the home, church and the university Music-making took place in the home, church and the university The university group was known as the Collegium musicum which still functions on some campuses today The university group was known as the Collegium musicum which still functions on some campuses today The comic opera, and the prose novel came into being The comic opera, and the prose novel came into being Painting turned to intimate scenes of Bourgeois life. Painting turned to intimate scenes of Bourgeois life. The Dutch School reached its high point with Rembrandt and Bermeer The Dutch School reached its high point with Rembrandt and Bermeer

6 Judith Leyster A bourgeois, or middle class, music scene

7 With merchants and financiers the culture of the city came to rival that of the palace. With merchants and financiers the culture of the city came to rival that of the palace. They embraced beauty, brocade and velvet, marble and jewels. They embraced beauty, brocade and velvet, marble and jewels. This aspect of Baroque life is expressed in the painting of Paul Rubens ( ) This aspect of Baroque life is expressed in the painting of Paul Rubens ( ) His nudes established the 17 th century ideal of feminine beauty His nudes established the 17 th century ideal of feminine beauty

8 Rubens The Garden of Love

9 Age of Discovery Kepler, Galeleo, Copernicus in physics and astronomy Kepler, Galeleo, Copernicus in physics and astronomy Descartes in Mathematics Descartes in Mathematics Spinoza in philosophy Spinoza in philosophy William Harvey in medicine and the circulation of the blood William Harvey in medicine and the circulation of the blood Sir Isaac Newton theory of gravity Sir Isaac Newton theory of gravity

10 Was also an intensely devout period. Was also an intensely devout period. Religion a rallying cry on the bloodiest battlefields in history. Religion a rallying cry on the bloodiest battlefields in history. Protestants in England, Germany, Scandinavia, and Holland Protestants in England, Germany, Scandinavia, and Holland Catholics in Spain, France, Italy, and Austria – French Bourbons and Spanish Hapsburgs Catholics in Spain, France, Italy, and Austria – French Bourbons and Spanish Hapsburgs In the new world – the colonies were founded on religious principles as Protestants In the new world – the colonies were founded on religious principles as Protestants New Spain in Catholicism New Spain in Catholicism

11 John Milton ( ) wrote Paradise Lost a poetic epic of Protestantism John Milton ( ) wrote Paradise Lost a poetic epic of Protestantism The Counter-reformation of the Catholics were found in the canvases of El Greco ( ) The Counter-reformation of the Catholics were found in the canvases of El Greco ( ) These paintings were the creations of a visionary mind that distorted the real in its search for a reality beyond These paintings were the creations of a visionary mind that distorted the real in its search for a reality beyond

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13 20. Main Currents in Baroque Music The transition to the Baroque brought about a shift from several independent lines (polyphony) to one in which a melody stood out (homophony). The transition to the Baroque brought about a shift from several independent lines (polyphony) to one in which a melody stood out (homophony). Monody: originated in vocal music around the year 1600 and was a new style featuring solo song with instrumental accompaniment Monody: originated in vocal music around the year 1600 and was a new style featuring solo song with instrumental accompaniment Monody first used by the Florentine Camerata – a group of writers, artists and musicians in Florence, Italy – whose aim was to resurrect the music-dramatic art of the ancient Greeks. Monody first used by the Florentine Camerata – a group of writers, artists and musicians in Florence, Italy – whose aim was to resurrect the music-dramatic art of the ancient Greeks. Vincenzo Galilei Vincenzo Galilei Giulio Caccini Giulio Caccini Jacopo Peri Jacopo Peri Monody focused on text and its emotional power Monody focused on text and its emotional power Le nuove musiche the new music they named “the expressive style” Le nuove musiche the new music they named “the expressive style” They felt this style could be used in an entire drama thus Leading to the invention of opera They felt this style could be used in an entire drama thus Leading to the invention of opera

14 New Harmonic Structures Figured bass: shorthand notation for harmony Figured bass: shorthand notation for harmony Chords created through improvisation Chords created through improvisation Basso continuo: bass part, performed by 2 instruments Basso continuo: bass part, performed by 2 instruments Chordal instrument (harpsichord, organ or lute) Chordal instrument (harpsichord, organ or lute) and bass instrument (cello or bassoon) and bass instrument (cello or bassoon) Establishment of the major-minor tonality system was the outcome of this simpler style and less complex harmonies and was the most significant change in all of music history. Establishment of the major-minor tonality system was the outcome of this simpler style and less complex harmonies and was the most significant change in all of music history. Equal temperament: a new tuning system that mathematically equalized the distance between adjacent tones Equal temperament: a new tuning system that mathematically equalized the distance between adjacent tones Made it possible to play in every major and minor key without experiencing unpleasant sounds Made it possible to play in every major and minor key without experiencing unpleasant sounds It increased the harmonic possibilities available to the composer It increased the harmonic possibilities available to the composer J.S. Bach’s The Well-Tempered Clavier (2 vols.) each contains 24 preludes and fugues, one in every possible key J.S. Bach’s The Well-Tempered Clavier (2 vols.) each contains 24 preludes and fugues, one in every possible key

15 Baroque Musical Style Early Baroque (monody) rhythm was freer Early Baroque (monody) rhythm was freer Late Baroque rhythm is more regular and vigorous Late Baroque rhythm is more regular and vigorous Used dissonant chords more freely for emotional intensity Used dissonant chords more freely for emotional intensity Emotions expressed with subtle dynamic changes “Nuance” Emotions expressed with subtle dynamic changes “Nuance”

16 The Doctrine of the Affections Union of text and music “Text painting” the music vividly mirrored the words Union of text and music “Text painting” the music vividly mirrored the words One mood or affection per movement or piece One mood or affection per movement or piece

17 The Rise of the Virtuoso Musician Technical improvements in instrument making Technical improvements in instrument making Composers challenging the performers Composers challenging the performers Out of these developments came challenging harpsichord sonatas by Out of these developments came challenging harpsichord sonatas by Domenico Scarlatti Domenico Scarlatti And virtuosic violin works of And virtuosic violin works of Antonio Vivaldi Antonio Vivaldi

18 Rise of virtuosity There was an imergence of Instrumental virtuosity There was an imergence of Instrumental virtuosity In Vocal music the development of a phenomenal technique known as Castrato In Vocal music the development of a phenomenal technique known as Castrato Countertenor or falsettist Countertenor or falsettist Improvisation played a significant role in Baroque music as in jazz and pop music today. Improvisation played a significant role in Baroque music as in jazz and pop music today.

19 Women in Baroque Music More professional women were singers and instrumentalists Francesca Caccini – first woman to compose an opera Francesca Caccini – first woman to compose an opera Barbara Strozzi – sacred and secular vocal music Barbara Strozzi – sacred and secular vocal music Faustina Bordoni Faustina Bordoni Francesca Cuzzoni Francesca Cuzzoni Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre – harpsichord music and cantatas Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre – harpsichord music and cantatas

20 Internationalism The Baroque was a culturally international period in which national styles existed. Free interchange among national cultures Jean-Baptiste Lully an Italian that created the French lyric tragedy Jean-Baptiste Lully an Italian that created the French lyric tragedy G. F. Handel – A German who wrote Italian operas for English audiences G. F. Handel – A German who wrote Italian operas for English audiences

21 The Teatro Argentina in Rome

22 Exoticism Looking to the Near East, the Americas, and elsewhere for ideas Looking to the Near East, the Americas, and elsewhere for ideas Operatic scenes were of far off lands of Persia, India, Turkey, The Near East, Peru, and the Americas Operatic scenes were of far off lands of Persia, India, Turkey, The Near East, Peru, and the Americas In Rameau’s opera ballet “Les Indes galantes”, each act is set in a different corner of the world. In Rameau’s opera ballet “Les Indes galantes”, each act is set in a different corner of the world.


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