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Religions of the Middle East. Copy and fill in this KWL chart: K (What do you already Know?) W (What do you Want to know?) L (What did you Learn?) Islam.

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Presentation on theme: "Religions of the Middle East. Copy and fill in this KWL chart: K (What do you already Know?) W (What do you Want to know?) L (What did you Learn?) Islam."— Presentation transcript:

1 Religions of the Middle East

2 Copy and fill in this KWL chart: K (What do you already Know?) W (What do you Want to know?) L (What did you Learn?) Islam Christianity Judaism

3 Enduring Understanding Students will understand that the culture of a society is the product of the religion, beliefs, customs, traditions, and government of that society.

4 Georgia Performance Standards The student will describe the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southwest Asia (Middle East). c. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in SW Asia: Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. d. Explain the origin of the division between Sunni and Shia Muslims.

5 Vocabulary Terms 1. Monotheism-belief in one god 2. Polytheism-belief in many gods 3. Exile- forced removal from one’s native country 4. The Diaspora- the scattering of the Jews to other parts of the world 5. Resurrect- to bring back to life 6. Prophet- a messenger of God 7. Sects- groups

6 Judaism a monotheistic religion founded by Abraham and whose followers are called Jews a monotheistic religion founded by Abraham and whose followers are called Jews Oldest of the 3 religions Oldest of the 3 religions Began as a set of beliefs & laws practiced by ancient Hebrew people (Israelites) in Southwest Asia Began as a set of beliefs & laws practiced by ancient Hebrew people (Israelites) in Southwest Asia They believe that a human leader will come as a messenger of God and bring about a golden age (Messiah). They believe that a human leader will come as a messenger of God and bring about a golden age (Messiah). Hebrew Bible is the sacred text of Judaism. It contains the Torah (the first 5 books of the Old Testament, Psalms, and a few other Old Testament books) Hebrew Bible is the sacred text of Judaism. It contains the Torah (the first 5 books of the Old Testament, Psalms, and a few other Old Testament books) Is both an ethnic group and a religious group Is both an ethnic group and a religious group

7 Judaism Leader: Abraham-father of the Jews 2000 BC -Born in Ur (present day Iraq) 2000 BC -Born in Ur (present day Iraq) Moved to Canaan (present day Israel) when told to leave his native land by Yahweh (God) Moved to Canaan (present day Israel) when told to leave his native land by Yahweh (God) Canaan-land promised to Abraham & his descendents by God. Canaan-land promised to Abraham & his descendents by God. If he moved to Canaan, Abraham and his family would be blessed If he moved to Canaan, Abraham and his family would be blessed Moses-prophet that led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt He received God’s laws (the Ten Commandments), He received God’s laws (the Ten Commandments), which were different from existing laws because they were based on the worship of one God. (monotheism) which were different from existing laws because they were based on the worship of one God. (monotheism)

8 Judaism First Temple for Jewish worship First Temple for Jewish worship Built around 1000-900 BC by King David Built around 1000-900 BC by King David 586 BC-destroyed by Babylonians 586 BC-destroyed by Babylonians Jews were exiled for 50 years. Jews were exiled for 50 years. Persians allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild temple. Persians allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild temple. Second temple Second temple Built on the site of first temple in 20 BC Built on the site of first temple in 20 BC Destroyed by Romans attacking Jerusalem in 70 AD Destroyed by Romans attacking Jerusalem in 70 AD Jews moved away from the land after temple was destroyed (The Diaspora) Jews moved away from the land after temple was destroyed (The Diaspora) Has never been rebuilt (the only remaining wall is the Wailing Wall) Has never been rebuilt (the only remaining wall is the Wailing Wall)

9 Christianity a religion that developed out of Judaism and based on the life and teachings of Jesus (leader) a religion that developed out of Judaism and based on the life and teachings of Jesus (leader) World’s largest religion (2.1 billion followers) World’s largest religion (2.1 billion followers) Bible- the sacred text of Christianity Bible- the sacred text of Christianity 30 AD-began preaching new ideas about Judaism 30 AD-began preaching new ideas about Judaism Jesus’ teachings Jesus’ teachings Believed that the old laws of Judaism should be replaced by a simpler system based on love of one’s fellow human beings. Believed that the old laws of Judaism should be replaced by a simpler system based on love of one’s fellow human beings. Jesus preached for 3 years. Jesus preached for 3 years.

10 Christianity 33 AD 33 AD Romans found him guilty of treason and was sentenced to death by crucifixion. Romans found him guilty of treason and was sentenced to death by crucifixion. Jesus died, but was resurrected. Jesus died, but was resurrected. Jews do not acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah. Jews do not acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah. Disciples Disciples 12 close followers of Jesus 12 close followers of Jesus Spread his teachings and their belief that he was the Messiah promised in Jewish scripture Spread his teachings and their belief that he was the Messiah promised in Jewish scripture

11 Christianity Christianity spread because of Paul of Tarsus Christianity spread because of Paul of Tarsus Never met Jesus Never met Jesus Told to teach Jesus’ ideas to non-Jews in a vision after the crucifixion Told to teach Jesus’ ideas to non-Jews in a vision after the crucifixion Traveled to build churches throughout the ancient world Traveled to build churches throughout the ancient world Followers of Jesus’ teachings were now called Christians. Followers of Jesus’ teachings were now called Christians. 100 AD – Romans fought the growth of Christianity 100 AD – Romans fought the growth of Christianity -Many Christians were arrested and killed, so many worshipped in secret to avoid persecution. -Despite this, Christianity continued to spread 325 AD – Roman Emperor Constantine called for a meeting to discuss how Christianity should be practiced. 325 AD – Roman Emperor Constantine called for a meeting to discuss how Christianity should be practiced. -Catholic Church was created (Catholic means universal).

12 Islam a religion that teaches that there is one god and that Muhammed is his prophet a religion that teaches that there is one god and that Muhammed is his prophet Muslim-a follower of the religion Islam Muslim-a follower of the religion Islam Allah-Arabic for God Allah-Arabic for God Leader: Muhammad-born in 570 A.D. in Mecca, S.A. Leader: Muhammad-born in 570 A.D. in Mecca, S.A. 610 AD-had a vision of an angel who told him to preach about one god, Allah 610 AD-had a vision of an angel who told him to preach about one god, Allah These messages from Allah were written down and have become the Qur’an. These messages from Allah were written down and have become the Qur’an. 622 AD-He was forced to flee Mecca. 622 AD-He was forced to flee Mecca. 632 AD-died 632 AD-died After his death, Muslims fought over who would be his successor which caused a split (will discuss later). After his death, Muslims fought over who would be his successor which caused a split (will discuss later).

13 Islam Islamic Golden Age began in 700 A.D. Islamic Golden Age began in 700 A.D. Muslim scholars led to advances in math, astronomy, and medicine. Muslim scholars led to advances in math, astronomy, and medicine. Muslim business practices led to modern day banking. Muslim business practices led to modern day banking. They introduced the compass and foods, such as rice and sugar to Europe (via the Silk Road) They introduced the compass and foods, such as rice and sugar to Europe (via the Silk Road) Our old friend, Genghis Khan and his Mongols, invaded the area and controlled until the late 1200s when the Ottoman Empire began (we will discuss later). Our old friend, Genghis Khan and his Mongols, invaded the area and controlled until the late 1200s when the Ottoman Empire began (we will discuss later). Five Pillars of Islam (Main beliefs) Five Pillars of Islam (Main beliefs) 1. Believe in only one God and Muhammad is his messenger. 2. Pray in the direction of Mecca five times a day. 3. Give money to the poor and needy. 4. Fast (from sunrise to sunset) during the month of Ramadan. 5. Make a hajj to Mecca at least once in your lifetime.

14 What are Sunni and Shia Muslims? The Sunni accepted Muhammad’s father- in-law as the new leader. They think the community should choose the best leader for Islam. They believe that Muslim scholars should be respected, but should not have supreme power. They are less strict in their beliefs than the Shia. The Sunni accepted Muhammad’s father- in-law as the new leader. They think the community should choose the best leader for Islam. They believe that Muslim scholars should be respected, but should not have supreme power. They are less strict in their beliefs than the Shia. The Shia believed that Muhammad’s son- in-law should have been leader. Today, they follow a supreme imam as their spiritual guide and interpreter of faith. The Shia believed that Muhammad’s son- in-law should have been leader. Today, they follow a supreme imam as their spiritual guide and interpreter of faith.

15 Why is there division between Sunni and Shia Muslims? Many Sunni rulers perceived the Shia as a threat, both to their political and religious authority. Many Sunni rulers perceived the Shia as a threat, both to their political and religious authority. Their basic beliefs are the same (Qur’an and Muhammad), but their practices and interpretations are different. Their basic beliefs are the same (Qur’an and Muhammad), but their practices and interpretations are different. The Shia remain an oppressed community in many countries without the right to practice their religion or organize and have been the target of violence. The Shia remain an oppressed community in many countries without the right to practice their religion or organize and have been the target of violence. 85% of all Muslims are Sunni. Based on our notes on government, which country do you think has a Shia majority? 85% of all Muslims are Sunni. Based on our notes on government, which country do you think has a Shia majority?

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