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January 16, 2013 Jenny Fanelli, CI&A. Our Outcomes Today we will: Discern the emphasis on vocabulary in the Common Core Learning Standards Ruminate on.

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Presentation on theme: "January 16, 2013 Jenny Fanelli, CI&A. Our Outcomes Today we will: Discern the emphasis on vocabulary in the Common Core Learning Standards Ruminate on."— Presentation transcript:

1 January 16, 2013 Jenny Fanelli, CI&A

2 Our Outcomes Today we will: Discern the emphasis on vocabulary in the Common Core Learning Standards Ruminate on the process of vocabulary acquisition Scrutinize the process for effective direct vocabulary instruction Assay strategies to support students’ independent word learning Reconnoiter print and digital resources

3 Our Agenda Starting our thinking… A quick look… –CCLS –some background information Digging in to Resources Direct vocabulary instruction Word learning strategies Word Consciousness Next steps…

4 Synectics My school year is like____ because_____.

5 Synectics Vocabulary instruction is like____ because_____.

6 Rationale for Vocabulary Development

7 Common Core Literacy Shifts 1. Balancing Informational & Literary Texts (Grades PK-5)2. Knowledge in the Disciplines (Grades 6-12)3. Staircase of Complexity4. Text-based Answers5. Writing from Sources6. Academic Vocabulary

8 Common Core Literacy Shifts 1. Building Knowledge Through Content Rich Nonfiction 2. Reading and Writing Grounded in Evidence From Text, Both Literary and Informational 3. Regular Practice with Complex Text and Its Academic Language

9 The anchor standards Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.

10 The anchor standards Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 5.Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

11 The anchor standards Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 6.Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.

12 Vocabulary Learning, as a language based activity, is fundamentally and profoundly dependent on vocabulary knowledge. Learners must have access to the meanings of words that teachers, or their surrogates (e.g., other adults, books, films, etc.), use to guide them into contemplating known concepts in novel ways (i.e., to learn something new). (Baker, Simmons, & Kame'enui, 1998)

13 Importance of Vocabulary Up to 74% of a student’s reading comprehension depends his understanding of the vocabulary.

14 Background Knowledge Vocabulary

15 words=knowledge Words are linguistic descriptions (labels) of “packets” of knowledge. The more words we have, the more information we have. For example…

16 What Is This Packet’s Label? Tent Cold Sleeping Bag Animals Bears at Dump Chipmunks Forest Dark

17 What Is This Packet’s Label? norms traditions Golden Rule Symbols Flag On Money Laws Language

18 The “Right” Background for School Success All people have background knowledge. However, not all students come to you with “academic” background knowledge.

19 How is Academic Background Knowledge Developed? Two factors: –A learner’s ability to process and store information. –The number and frequency of “academically oriented” experiences.

20 Academically Oriented Experiences Such As… World experiences – travels, zoo, grocery store The talk that accompanies these experiences READING…in fact reading is the most efficient method to build vocabulary and background knowledge.

21 LOWMEDIUMHIGH CurtisBarbaraAlan MEDIUM GinaEthanCalvin LOW IrisHildaFrank FLUID (INNATE) INTELLIGENCE ACCESS TO ACADEMICALLY-ORIENTED EXPERIENCES

22 Differences in vocabulary growth Student A 2 words per day 750 words per year Student B 8 words per day 3,000 words per year

23 Where does that lead? High school seniors at the top of their class know about four times as many words as their lower performing classmates.

24 “Although it is true that the extent to which students will learn new content is dependent on such factors such as the skill of the teacher, the interest of the student, and the complexity of the content, the research supports one compelling fact: what students already know about content is one of strongest indicators of how well they will learn new information relative to that content.” »Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge The Big idea!!

25 Happiness Obstinate Sagacity Egregious Ratiocinate Can you sketch them? 25 do you “know” these words?

26 Knowing a word is not all-or- nothing!

27 What does it mean to KNOW a word? Breadth Depth Breadth: Lots of words Depth: rich understanding Word Knowledge

28 What does it mean to KNOW a word? Assess your knowledge of the words you may encounter in our workshop. Join with a partner and compare your lists. Are there words that you can help each other to understand?

29 What does it mean to KNOW a word?  No knowledge: the word is not in your listening, reading, speaking or writing vocabularies  Catoptromancy, quidnunc, usufructuary, engastrimyth Breadth

30 What does it mean to KNOW a word?  General sense: you know something about the word, e.g. you may know that a word has a positive or negative connotation  punctilious, mendacious, mellifluous Breadth

31 What Does Hobbes Know? Not Know?

32 What does it mean to KNOW a word?  Narrow context-bound knowledge  discriminate, solution, compound, constitution, division Breadth

33 What does it mean to KNOW a word?  Have some knowledge of a word but may not use it in appropriate situations  Abraham Lincoln became America's greatest precedent. Breadth

34 What does it mean to KNOW a word?  Rich, decontextualized knowledge of a word’s meaning, its relationship to other words, and its extension to metaphorical uses (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002) Breadth

35 What does it mean to KNOW a word?  Generalization: define a word  Application: select or recognize appropriate situations  Breadth: polysemy (multiple meanings) Depth

36 What does it mean to KNOW a word?  Precision: apply correctly to different situations and recognize inappropriate use  Availability: use in thinking, speaking and writing Depth

37 Myth Mix-Up Choose one of the myths about vocabulary instruction and read the information for the most important points.

38 Myth Mix-Up For the next few minutes, move around the room to share your most important points and to gather information about the other myths. Try to get information about all 10 myths!

39 Two Minute Buzz Talk with a partner about what you’re thinking. What connections are you making?

40 So… What does all this mean for our teaching?

41

42 Word selection Definitions and context Opportunities for speaking and writing Multiple exposures Direct Instruction Modeling and think-alouds Use of context Dictionary resources and tools Morphemic analysis Word families Word Learning Strategies High quality classroom language Wide independent reading Vocabulary self-collection Word Consciousness Independent word learners with rich vocabulary knowledge IntentionalTransparentUseablePersonalPrioritized

43 Intentional RepresentationRepeatabilityTransportability Transparent ModelingThink-alouds Useable Oral practiceCollaboration Positive interdependence Personal Multiple exposures Self-monitoringWriting Prioritized Every classEvery day

44 Digging in to Resources: Books Explore your book, Inside Words by Janet Allen Identify the sections or items in the book that pique your interest and mark them with sticky notes or page flags. Share with your partner what is intriguing to you and why.

45 Digging in to Resources: The Handouts Take a few minutes to browse through your handouts to see some other activities that might be useful to you. Mark them with a sticky note or page flag.

46 Digging in to Resources: Online Resources With your table partners, use the organizer to explore some vocabulary related sites. Divide and conquer!

47 Digging in to Resources Now that you’ve had some time to explore, keep these resources handy!

48 Word selection Definitions and context Opportunities for speaking and writing Multiple exposures Direct Instruction Modeling and think-alouds Use of context Dictionary resources and tools Morphemic analysis Word families Word Learning Strategies High quality classroom language Wide independent reading Vocabulary self-collection Word Consciousness Independent word learners with rich vocabulary knowledge IntentionalTransparentUseablePersonalPrioritized

49 Word selection Definitions and context Opportunities for speaking and writing Multiple exposures Direct Instruction IntentionalTransparentUseablePersonalPrioritized

50 Direct Instruction Explicitly teach the most important words: Which words? –Technical vocabulary? –Disciplinary vocabulary? –Concept critical vocabulary? –Tier 2 words? –Tier 3 words? How?

51 Word Selection Target vocabulary should include words that: Are representative: words that are important for understanding the big ideas and concepts of the text and the content. Have repeatability: Words that students will encounter often. Have transportability: Words that are useful in many contexts.

52 Word Selection Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3 Basic words Most children know before entering school Need to learn to recognize in print Sophisticated vocabulary of written text Used in a variety of contexts and domains Students already have understanding of the concepts Have high utility or mileage across domains Typically associated with a specific domain (e.g. science, social studies, music) Need to build knowledge about the word in the context of that domain clock, baby, happysinister, fortunate, adaptisotope, peninsula, bucolic (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002)

53 Word Selection Select words to teach: From texts that students are reading. From books you are reading aloud. That are related to the content of instruction.

54 Word Selection: Your Turn Using your materials, develop a list of words that you would directly teach your students. List the words and their context in the Vocabulary Planner. Share your list with a partner and explain why you chose the words.

55 The Instructional Process Effective instruction includes: Student-friendly definitions and context Opportunities to use the words in speaking and writing Multiple exposures

56 Student-Friendly Definitions Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely on dictionary definitions. When you first learn a word, you understand it more as a description. WordDefinitionDescription covert kept from sight; secret; hidden when something is done in a hidden or secret way disruptbreak up; split to cause problems or stop something from going easily or peacefully illusion appearance or feeling that misleads because it is not real something that looks like one thing, but it is really something else or is not really there at all

57 Did you know? Dictionary definitions are developed based on the need to be as complete as possible in as little space as necessary! There is nothing official or scientific about it.

58 Instead, provide a model A description or explanation of the word AND An example of how the word is typically used (or how it might be used in the text).

59 Explain Webster’s 1.a. to make known; b. to make plain or understandable 2.to give the reason for or cause of 3.to show the logical development or relationships of” Student Friendly If you explain something, you give details about it or describe it until someone can understand it.

60 Clear and Understandable Definitions Your definitions will often use the words something, someone, or describes. This helps students get a handle on how the words are used

61 Definition and Context Covert Covert is a word that describes something that is done in a secret or hidden way. For example, “the boy covertly put the candy bar in his bag.”

62 Multiple Meanings

63 March Planned For Next August Patient At Death's Door - Doctors Pull Him Through Queen Mary Having Bottom Scraped Juvenile Court to Try Shooting Defendant Killer Sentenced to Die for Second Time in 10 Years Police Begin Campaign to Run Down Jaywalkers President Wins on Budget, But More Lies Ahead Panda Mating Fails; Veterinarian Takes Over

64 Multiple Meanings Polysemous words, especially in content classes, can create confusion. 70% of the most frequently used words have multiple meanings. Context becomes a critical factor to understanding word meanings. set

65 Multiple Meanings Science words with multiple meanings

66 To deepen their thinking about word meanings… Have students restate definitions (your or from the dictionary) in their own words Connect to background knowledge and experience Use their own descriptions, examples, explanations Form links between the new word and those already known

67 Develop Your Definitions Using one of the words you chose, develop a student-friendly definition and a model sentence to demonstrate how the words is used. Write these on the Vocabulary Planner and share with a partner. Are your definitions clear and understandable? Do your sentences show how the word is used in context? (Think polysemy!)

68 Word selection Definitions and context Opportunities for speaking and writing Multiple exposures Direct Instruction IntentionalTransparentUseablePersonalPrioritized

69 Multiple Opportunities to Use the Words It takes 7-14 encounters with words for our brains to begin to put them in a useable place in long-term memory.

70 Multiple Opportunities to Use the Words Students should represent the words using graphics or pictures: Allows processing of information in new modality Provides second processing of the information to reinforce and deepen meaning

71 Multiple Opportunities to Use the Words Students should see, write and use the words in many activities to build a deeper meaning Word lists Word cards Classroom and personal word walls Vocabulary notebooks

72 Multiple Opportunities to Use the Words Expect students to use the words appropriately in discussions and in their writing.

73 Describe a Time When... Ask the students to talk or write about a time when… Important – you’re not just asking them to use the word in a sentences (e.g. “The man was covert.”) They must provide an appropriate context. Describe a time when you have been covert…

74 Idea Completions Provide stems for students to complete using their words. Again, remember, you’re providing the situation and the word…students are thinking about what they know. The spy was covert when…

75 Example and nonexample Give the students a scenario and have them decide whether it is an example of the word or not. Students must explain why they think so.

76 Which one is covert? The government officials had a meeting to discuss the way the war was going. The principal had a PTO meeting with all of the teachers and parents to discuss the upcoming school dance. WHY?

77 Word Sorts Ask pairs of students to arrange the words into categories –Closed sorts – you provide the categories –Open sorts – students determine the categories They can use sticky notes to label and explain the categories

78 Multiple Opportunities to Use the Words Vocabulary games give students more exposure to the term: Various games will provide further exposure to new words. Students will gain a deeper integration of the word by its continued review

79 Games Games like these can be made specific to your words and content: Bingo Password Jeopardy Wheel of Fortune Who Wants to Be a Millionaire And more…

80 What Kind of Practice? Using one of the words you chose, decide what kinds of opportunities for practice you will provide your students. Write these on the Vocabulary Planner and share with a partner. Are the activities a good match for the words?

81 Word selection Definitions and context Opportunities for speaking and writing Multiple exposures Direct Instruction Modeling and think-alouds Use of context Dictionary resources and tools Morphemic analysis Word families Word Learning Strategies High quality classroom language Wide independent reading Vocabulary self-collection Word Consciousness Independent word learners with rich vocabulary knowledge IntentionalTransparentUseablePersonalPrioritized

82 Modeling and think- alouds Use of Context Dictionary resources and tools Morphemic analysis Word families Word Learning Strategies IntentionalTransparentUseablePersonalPrioritized

83 Modeling and Think-alouds Teachers need to model the strategies they want students to use and then gradually release responsibility to students.

84

85 Word-Learning Strategies Use of context clues. Use of dictionary resources and tools Morphemic analysis –Roots –Prefixes –Suffixes Word families

86 Model Use of Context Clues Read the sentence in which the word occurs for clues as to the word’s meaning. Read the surrounding sentences for clues as to the word’s meaning. Determine if there is enough information from context to establish a possible meaning. Try the possible meaning in the sentence. Does it make sense? Can you keep reading with comprehension?

87 Model Use of Dictionaries Locate the unknown word in a dictionary Read/listen to the pronunciation Check the part of speech Read the definition(s) Read any sample sentences to see how the word is used in context See if any other resources are available – etymology, word parts, synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms, hyponyms, images Select the meaning that best fits the context and try it in the sentence Does it make sense?

88 Guidelines for Online Dictionaries Page layout - uncluttered by ads Quality of definitions – simple definitions followed by more complex definitions Easy access to supportive elements –Pronunciation –Sentence examples –Etymology and word parts –Thesaurus – synonyms, antonyms –Games and activities

89 Model Morphemic Analysis morphemic morph- form or shape -pheme speak, talk -ic pertaining to

90 Model Morphemic Analysis Look for a meaningful part or parts in the unknown word. –Roots  Latin and Greek –Affixes  prefixes and suffixes Think what the part means or think of other words that contain the part. Determine if there is enough information to formulate a possible meaning and try it in the context. Does it make sense? Can you keep reading with comprehension?

91 Morphemic Analysis: Roots English borrows most heavily from Latin and Greek. Meanings of 60% of multisyllabic word can be inferred by analyzing word parts. Most of the academic words in English (e.g., math and science words) are derived from Latin and Greek. A single Latin or Greek root (or affix) can be found in and aid in the understanding of 20 or more English words.

92 Morphemic Analysis: Roots

93 Common Latin and Greek Roots aquawaterGreekaquarium, aqueduct audhearingLatinaudio, audition autoselfGreekautograph, autobiography astrostarGreekastronomy, astrophysics, astrology bibliobookGreekbibliography, bibliophobia biolifeGreekbiography, biology chronotimeGreeksynchronize, chronology corpbodyLatincorpse, corporation, corps demothe peopleGreekdemocracy, demography dictspeak, tellLatindictate, predict, dormsleepLatindormant, dormitory geoearthGreekgeology, geography

94 Common Latin and Greek Roots graphto write, to drawGreekautograph, biography hydrowaterGreekhydroplane, dehydrate, hydroelectric jectthrowLatinreject, deject, project, trajectory logos, logystudyGreekgeology, astrology, biology, numerology lunamoonLatinlunar, lunacy metermeasureGreekthermometer, diameter megagreat, large, bigGreekmegaphone, megatons minsmall, littleLatinminimal, minimize, minimum mit, missendLatinmission, transmit, remit, missile pathfeeling, sufferingGreekpathetic, pathology pedfootLatinpedestrian, pedal philialove, friendshipGreekphilanthropist

95 Common Latin and Greek Roots phonosoundGreekphonograph, microphone, symphony photolightGreekphotograph, photosynthesis portcarryLatintransport, portable spectseeLatinrespect, inspection, spectator scopelook atGreekmicroscope, telescope solsoundLatinsolar, solstice structbuild, formLatininstruction, construction, destruct teledistantGreektelephone, television terralandLatinterritory, terrestrial

96 Morphemic Analysis: Prefixes Elements attached to beginning of English words that alter meaning. Prefixes are useful because they are –used in many words –consistently spelled –easy to identify –clear in meaning Teach very common prefixes. Un, re, in, and dis found in 58% of prefixed words.

97 The Most Common Prefixes in English PrefixMeaning% of Prefixed WordsExamples unnot; reversal of26%uncover reagain, back, really14%rewrite in/imin, into, not11%incorrect, insert disaway, apart, negative7%discover, discontent en/emin; within; on4%entail miswrong3%mistaken prebefore3%prevent proin favor of; forward1%protect anot; in, on, without1%atypical

98 Morphemic Analysis: Suffixes Elements attached to ending of English words. Can change the part of the speech or the meaning. Focus on common derivational suffixes. -able, -ful, -less, -ness, -or Introduce the suffix and use to determine the meaning of a number of words (ful -helpful, truthful, mouthful, joyful).

99 The Most Common Suffixes in English SuffixMeaning% of Suffixed Words Examples s, esmore than one; verb marker31%movies edin the past; quality/state20%walked ingwhen you do something; quality, state 14%walking lyhow something is7%lovely er,orone who, what/that/which4%teacher, tailor tion, sionstate, quality; act4%action; erosion able, ibleable to be2%comfortable al, ialrelated to, like1%fatal

100 Model Using Word Families Word families are groups of words related in meaning. If you know the meaning of one family member, you can infer the meaning of related words. enthused enthusiasm enthusiastic enthusiastically collect collecting collection collector educate educated education educator wild wildly wilderness

101 Academic Word Lists

102 How will you…? Using your materials and your resources, think about how you will model each of the word learning strategies. Write down you ideas on the Word Learning Strategies notetaking sheet. Be ready to share!

103 Word selection Definitions and context Opportunities for speaking and writing Multiple exposures Direct Instruction Modeling and think-alouds Use of context Dictionary resources and tools Morphemic analysis Word families Word Learning Strategies High quality classroom language Wide independent reading Vocabulary self-collection Word Consciousness Independent word learners with rich vocabulary knowledge IntentionalTransparentUseablePersonalPrioritized

104 High quality classroom language Wide independent reading Vocabulary self- collection Word Consciousness IntentionalTransparentUseablePersonalPrioritized

105 Word Consciousness An understanding of and interest in words, how they are used, and their importance in learning and communicating

106 Word Consciousness Students who have word consciousness: Appreciate and understand words and their use Are alert to new words Use words creatively Understand how words and concepts are related across different contexts

107 High Quality Classroom Language Teachers can: Model using elaborate and extended language Draw attention to words, their meanings, and their use Check for understanding. No assuming! Read aloud from good literature Communicate their own appreciation and love of words Have fun with words and language

108 Wide Independent Reading The best way to foster vocabulary growth is to promote wide reading.

109 A student in the 20th percentile reads books ______ minutes a day. This adds up to _________words read in books per year. A student in the 80th percentile reads books ______ minutes a day. This adds up to __________ words read in books per year..7 21,000 1,146, Wide Independent Reading

110 Increasing Amount of Independent Reading Maximize access to books. –Extended library hours –Classroom libraries –Book sales, book exchanges Establish time for independent reading. –Silent Sustained Reading –Partner Reading –Expect reading outside of class

111 Increasing Amount of Independent Reading Encourage selection of books at the independent reading level. Encourage students to read “familiar” books. –Same author –Same characters –Same genre –Same series

112 Increasing Amount of Independent Reading Enhance personal motivation. –Establish a school climate that encourages reading. –Have book-rich environments. –Provide book recommendations. Book talks Bulletin boards with recommendations Book tables Book clubs

113 Vocabulary Self-Collection Students identify words from their own reading –Monitor their learning –Learn to recognize unfamiliar, interesting or important words –Develop their vocabularies beyond direct instruction –Become word conscious

114 Vocabulary Self-Collection 1.Selecting words 2.Defining the words 3.Finalizing the word lists 4.Extending word knowledge

115 How will you…? Using your materials and your resources, think about how you will encourage word consciousness in your classroom. Write down you ideas on the Word Consciousness notetaking sheet. Be ready to share!

116 Word selection Definitions and context Opportunities for speaking and writing Multiple exposures Direct Instruction Modeling and think-alouds Use of context Dictionary resources and tools Morphemic analysis Word families Word Learning Strategies High quality classroom language Wide independent reading Vocabulary self-collection Word Consciousness Independent word learners with rich vocabulary knowledge IntentionalTransparentUseablePersonalPrioritized

117 Before we say adieu… Think and write: How did this information support, extend, or challenge your thinking? and Please fill out the BOCES evaluation form. Thank you!! Thank you!! Thank you!! 117


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