2WHAT?Specific word instruction is just that – direct teaching of specific vocabulary words relevant to a given text.GOAL : For students to use instructed words in understanding text and be comfortable enough with them to use them correctly in speech and writing (Beck, McKeown and Kucan 2002)
3WHAT should specific word instruction do? Focus on words important to the text and useful in many situationsProvide deeper knowledge of word meaningsProvide clear explanations and examples in various contexts with opportunities to discuss, analyze, use and compareProvide multiple exposures to the words in different contextsEngage students in active processing by getting them to use words in new contexts and create associations among words. (Multiple reading researchers)
4Tier One consists of basic words ie the, and, daddy etc. WHAT words to teach? Though there is no definite formula for determining what words to teach there are three strategies researchers have developed to make the process easier.Three tier system (Beck and McKowen 1985) words are classified according to thier level of utility.Tier One consists of basic words ie the, and, daddy etc.These words rarely require direct instruction.Tier Two words occur frequently in language and are central to comprehension.These are the best candidates for explicit instruction.Tier Three are words usually limited to specific fields of study.See chart on page for guideline questions used in classification.
5WHAT words to teach? Sequence of word acquisition (Biemiller 2005a) Students learn vocabulary in a sequence defined by vocabulary size rather than grade level. So focus on words that are likely to be learned.Selecting words for English Language Learners (Calderon 2005)A modified version of the tier system that addresses concreteness, cognate status, depth of meaning, and utility.
6WHAT kind of instruction? Rich and Robust – in other words make it come alive for the students not just dictionary definitions and rote memorization.Incorporate it into reading instruction; use the context of the reading to explain meaning.Introducing specific words through an explanation rather than a definition, and use teacher created contexts, and get students actively engaged in the discussion of word meaning immediately.
7WHAT kind of instruction? Develop in depth word knowledge by getting students actively engaged in using and thinking about new words and word meanings and creating relationships among words. ( Beck and McKeown 2004)Extend word use beyond the classroom don’t let words drop out after students leave the classroom.
8WHY use specific word instruction? SIMPLE! A + B = CA- increase in vocabulary learning and comprehensionB- deeper knowledge of word meaningsC- students better understand what they are reading, hearing and ultimately LEARNING
9WHEN to teach specific words? Guided by the situation, specific words can be introduced before reading, during reading or after reading.Vocabulary instruction should(and can) happen anytime andall the time.Beck and McKeown 2004
10WHEN? Assess and Intervene As with any intervention, the earlier it is used the better your long term results will be. And it is necessary to develop a baseline from a reliable assessment in order to monitor growth. Although there are some assessments available, it is often the inability to readily assess vocabulary growth that has been a major reason for lack of attention to vocabulary in the primary grades. (Biemiller 2004)
11HOW to teach using specific word instruction? Text Talk: Read Aloud MethodMeaning Vocabulary: Direct Explanation MethodMethod for Independently Read TextIntroducing Function WordsConcept Picture SortSemantic MapSemantic Feature AnalysisPossible SentencesWord MapKeyword Method
12HOW?Text Talk Read Aloud text specific vocabulary is extensively introduced after the story has been read aloud to students.Direct Explanation story is read aloud to students four times over three days introducing up to 25 new vocabulary words.Independently Read Text introduce word meanings one at a time before reading.
13HOW?Introducing Function Words explicit instruction of words with a syntactic function. Useful for prepositions, conjunctions, articles and pronouns especially with ELLs.Concept Picture Sort an opportunity for students to classify and categorize while adding new information to their existing word knowledge.Semantic Map one concept or word is tied graphically to related words.
14HOW?Semantic Feature Analysis uses a grid format to systematically explore and reinforce vocabulary concepts through categorization.Possible Sentences pre-reading strategy requiring students to use two words in their own original sentences.Word Map a graphic organizer to show how words relate to one another.Keyword Method uses a keyword to assist in remembering the target word definition.
15ConclusionAccording to the National Reading Panel (2000) explicit instruction of vocabulary is highly effective especially when taught in rich contexts rather than isolated drills. The goal for students is not to simply know the words but to understand and actively use the words we teach them.All information was taken from Teaching Reading Sourcebook 2nd edition chapter 11.