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Growth, Maturation and the Development of Motor Skill.

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Presentation on theme: "Growth, Maturation and the Development of Motor Skill."— Presentation transcript:

1 Growth, Maturation and the Development of Motor Skill

2 Measuring Growth in Length and Stature Recumbent length is measured from birth until a child is able to stand –Measured from the vertex (highest point on skull) to the soles of the feet

3 Measuring Growth in Length and Stature Stature or standing height is measured between the vertex and the floor Preferred measurement of body length

4 Measuring Growth in Length and Stature Stature can be estimated in the elderly and/or disabled populations from recumbent knee height

5 Growth in Length and Stature Zygote ~ 0.14 mm in diameter Birth –Boys ~ 20 in –Girls ~ 19.75 in Year 1 –Boys ~ 30 in –Girls ~ 29.25 in

6 Growth in Length and Stature Year 2 –Length increases about 4.75 in Year 3-5 –Decelerated growth rate to 2.75 in/year Year 6-adolescence –Decelerated growth rate to 2.25 in/year Midgrowth spurt in height –Between 6.5 and 8.5 years –More common in girls

7 Growth in Length and Stature Adolescence –20% of adult stature is attained during this 2 ½ to 3 year period –4 in /yr growth for boys –3 in/yr growth for girls 17.3 years –Median age in females when growth in stature ceases

8 Growth in Length and Stature 21.2 years –Median age in males when growth in stature ceases –Females attain final 2% of growth in stature 20-30 years –Growth of vertebral column may add another 1/8 in to stature 30-45 years –Stature is stable

9 Growth in Length and Stature Above 45 years ~ decrease in stature –Intervertebral disk degeneration –Joint cartilage in lower extremities becomes thin

10 Growth in Length and Stature Plots accumulative growth over time Typical distance curve for stature

11 National Center for Health Statistics growth velocity charts for girls on variable stature Plots increments of change per unit of time Can determine periods of fast and slow growth

12 Stature-for-Age

13 Stature-for-Age Percentiles Use these charts to determine if an individual is growing normally

14 Measuring Body Weight Electronic digital scales, calibrated in metric units are recommended Chair scales are available for those who are not capable of standing

15 Growth in Body Weight Conception ~ ovum weighs 0.005 mg Median Birth Weight –Boys ~ 7.5 lb –Girls ~ 7.0 lb –Day 1-3 postnatal, infant may lose up to 10% of body weight Year 1 –Boys ~ 22.5 lb –Girls ~ 21 lb

16 Growth in Body Weight Year 2 ~ gain of 5.5 lb Years 3-5 ~ gain of 4.5 lb Year 6 – Adolescence –Slight increase in rate of weight gain of 6.5/year Adolescence –Males add about 45 lb of body weight –Females add about 35 lb of body weight

17 Growth in Body Weight Peak weight velocity = maximum rate of growth in body weight –Occurs after peak height velocity Mature body weight is approximately 20x that of birth weight

18 Growth in Body Weight Year 18 –Males ~ 151.75 lb –Females ~ 124.75 lb Above 19 years –Weight is a matter of nutritional and exercise status –Some weight gain during pregnancy is permanent

19 Growth in Body Weight Women with children tend to weigh more than childless sisters Some weight gain in pregnancy may be permanent Women who gain more weight than recommended may be at risk for obesity 10 yrs later

20 Growth in Body Weight Typical distance curve for body weight

21 National Center for Health Statistics growth velocity charts for boys and girls on variable body weight


23 Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculating BMI Healthy adult = 18.5-24.9 Underweight = <18.5 Overweight = 25-29.9 Obese = >30

24 BMI-for-Age In children and adolescents, BMI-for-age is best used as a guide to determine individual nutritional status BMI-for-age between 85 th percentile and 95 th percentile is classified as risk for becoming overweight BMI-for-age greater than 95 th percentile, overweight is a concern

25 BMI-for-Age Adiposity rebound: upward trend occurring after the low point on the BMI percentile curve –The earlier the adiposity rebound occurs in a child, the more likely BMI will be high in adulthood


27 BMI-for-Age NHANES, between 1960 and 2000 –Children and adults are fatter In adults –Mean height has increased 1 in –Mean body weight has increased 24 lb! In children –6-11 yr, both boys and girls are 9 lb heavier –12-17 yr, boys are 15 lb heavier and girls are 12 lb heavier

28 Stature and Weight: Motor Performance The interrelationship between weight and height is task specific during adolescence and adulthood Increased body weight is an asset in some sports Increased body fat exerts a negative influence on performance in sports where the body needs to be supported

29 Stature and Weight: Motor Performance On average –Thin, muscular, and small-boned babies walk earlier –Infants who are long for their weight walk earlier Motor performance may be delayed in obese infants –Most children catch up to peers within a year

30 Adolescent Awkwardness This refers to a period during the growth spurt where motor performance is disrupted –Peak height velocity Estimated age for boys = 13.7 yr –Most common in best performers at start of peak height velocity Estimated age for girls = 11.8 yr The phenomenon is not universal

31 Changes in Head Circumference Ratio of head size to overall body length –Head contributes 25% to body length Head circumference –Indicative of brain development

32 Measuring Head Circumference

33 Changes in Head Circumference Birth – head is ¼ of total body length –Head circumference is greater than chest circumference –Head circumference ~ 35 cm By year 1, head circumference increases 12 cm Year 2, head circumferences increases 5 cm Between ages 3 and 20 yr, head circumference only increases 5-6 cm

34 Changes in Sitting Height Birth – sitting height = 85% of total length Age 6 – sitting height = 55% of total length Adult – sitting height = 50% of total length

35 Changes in Stature 55-60% of stature increase due to leg growth Ratio between sitting height and stature –Describes the contribution of the legs and trunk to total height

36 Changes in Body Proportions Sitting height/stature ratio

37 Changes in Body Configuration Changes in body proportions with age Notice the great changes in the relative size of the head and lower limbs

38 Changes in Shoulder and Hip Width Ratio between biacromial and bicristal breadths –Shoulder width to hip width

39 Changes in Shoulder and Hip Width Mean biacromial and bicristal breadth Males – wide at shoulders Females – wide at hips

40 Changes in Shoulder and Hip Width % Bicristal/biacromial breadth x 100

41 Changes in the Center of Gravity A child’s center of gravity varies greatly because the head, trunk, and legs do not grow proportionally The center of gravity is high in children because a large proportion of their weight is in the upper body –Affects stability

42 Changes in the Center of Gravity For the adult, the center of gravity to total height is 53-59% –Males have a higher center of gravity than females do –Center of gravity is associated with the center of mass Men – chest Women – hips

43 Physique Overall body form W.H. Sheldon (1940) rated physique by three components –Endomorphic (round) –Mesomorphic (muscle) –Ectomorphic (thin)

44 EndomorphMesomorphEctomorph

45 Physique Heath and Carter (1967) Somatotype –Modified Sheldon’s method by adding anthropometry –Rating form includes measurement of skinfolds (endomorphic), height, breadth of bone, arm and calf circumferences (mesomorphic), and a ponderal index (ectomorphic) Ponderal index = a way of characterizing height to mass Typical numbers are 21-25 in adults

46 Body Proportion and Motor Performance Stability (balance) is a problem for young children due to their higher center of gravity and small base of support Balance is superior in women and girls due to their shorter legs and wider pelvis –Lowers center of gravity

47 Body Proportion and Motor Performance Wide hips, short legs, and a low center of gravity make running and jumping tasks difficult for girls Wider shoulders and longer arms in boys and men is an advantage for throwing events

48 Measuring Skeletal Health Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) –Can measure differences among lean soft tissue, fat soft tissue, and bone tissue –Determines BMD – bone mineral density US is an aging society –More concern for bone diseases like osteoporosis

49 (a) Normal Bone (b) Osteoporotic Bone

50 Skeletal Development Appositional growth –Long bones grow in width by bone apposition on the outer surface of the bone –Short, flat, and irregular bones increase size by this method Endochondral growth –Involves the interstitial growth of cartilage followed by calcification of this cartilage –The result is increased bone length

51 Skeletal Development In utero –Intramembranous bone formation Embryonic membranes begin to ossify All long bones begin to ossify by birth Bone remodeling –Occurs throughout the lifespan –Osteoblasts (building) –Osteoclasts (chewing)

52 Skeletal Development From birth to 35 yr – osteoblast activity > osteoclast activity –Gaining bone After 35 yr, osteoclast activity > osteoblast activity –Exercise and stress on the bones becomes important

53 Skeletal Development Endochondral growth occurs at the epiphyseal plate (growth plate) Bone growth in length occurs when the epiphyseal plate becomes ossified and forms the epiphyseal line –Osteoblastic (bone building cell) activity

54 Exercise and Skeletal Health Interaction among activity, nutrition, genetics, and lifestyle Exercise increases bone density Inactivity is associated with bone decalcification (bone loss) Long periods in space reduce bone mass unless a vigorous exercise program is followed (treadmill)

55 Exercise and Skeletal Health Female athlete triad –Amenorrhea –Eating disorders –Bone mineral loss These problems are interrelated and this interrelationship is not completely understood in young women athletes

56 Female Athlete Triad - Interrelationships Eating Disorder Restrictive dieting Overexercising Loss of weight Bone Mineral Loss Osteoporosis Amenorrhea Diminished hormones

57 Maturation & Developmental Age Chronological age –Often used to denote maturity, but is a poor indicator Developmental age –Much better indicator of maturity –e.g., adolescence –Addresses variations in rate of maturation

58 Skeletal Maturity 3-year-old 5-year-old 14-year-old

59 Dental Maturity Dental maturation –Count the number of teeth that have emerged Dental age –Radiographs determine stage of bone calcification –Technique of choice –Can compare developmental stages

60 Genitalia Maturity Stages of pubertal development Girls –Assess pubic hair and breast development –Age of menarche Boys –Assess pubic hair and reproductive organ development

61 Maturation and Motor Performance The level of maturation can affect motor performance Postpubescent boys initially outperform prepubescent boys Once the late-maturing boys reach adolescence, the advantage is no longer evident

62 Maturation and Motor Performance Early maturation is not associated with superior motor performance in girls, except in swimming Late-maturing girls have superior motor performance –Longer arms and legs –Narrower hips

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