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Development of Cognition and Language: Vygotsky EDU 330: Educational Psychology Daniel Moos.

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Presentation on theme: "Development of Cognition and Language: Vygotsky EDU 330: Educational Psychology Daniel Moos."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development of Cognition and Language: Vygotsky EDU 330: Educational Psychology Daniel Moos

2 Procedure Sort the following words into whatever categories make sense and provide a label or rationale for each category. males, females, figs, kangaroo, meat, dogs, honey, bees, the moon, cigarettes, water, sun, spear, wine, wind, fish, mud, fire, birds, rainbow

3 Compare Compare your categories with the following created by aborigines in Australia…

4 Categories Bayi: males, kangaroo, the moon, rainbow, fish, spear Balan: females, dogs, birds, fire, water, sun Balam: figs, honey, wine, cigarettes Bala: meat, bees, wind, mud myths and beliefs: rainbows are believed to be mythical men experience: water extinguishes fire; myths and beliefs: birds are believed to be female spirits; dangerous and exceptional things are put in a minimally contrasting category: dogs are considered exceptional animals, so they appear in the second class instead of with men experience: wine is made from fruit

5 Internalization “Any higher mental function necessarily goes through an external stage in its development because it is initially a social function.” Lev Vygotsky

6 2. CRITICAL ROLE OF LANGUAGE 3. IMPORTANCE OF ASSISTED LEARNING 1. HUMAN LEARNING CANNOT BE UNDERSTOOD INDEPENDENT OF THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FORCES THAT INFLUENCE INDIVIDUALS**

7 LEV VYGOTSKY SOCIAL-HISTORICAL THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL AND CULTURAL INTERACTIONS ARE CRITICAL TO LEARNING INDIVIDUALS CREATE PSYCHOLOGICAL TOOLS TO LEARN AND TO MASTER THEIR BEHAVIOR

8 “The central fact about psychology is the fact of mediation.” Lev Vygotsky Intervention that focuses on experience during the processes of thinking and learning (metacognition); goal is to facilitate effective learning behavior “Learning how to learn” (self-regulation) Translating student’s language

9 Two mothers take their sons to the science museum. One of the mothers encourages her son to go on his own. He goes to various work stations, punches buttons, gets lights and noises and then runs to another station where he punches more buttons. He has a good time, exploring on his own. The other Mother goes with here son to a work station and before they push any keys asks him, "What do you think will happen if we push this key?" Then they push it and discuss the result. She encourages him to form hypotheses as to why one result or another is obtained. They try to improve their predictive ability, together. Together they monitor the child's improving capacity to predict. “The central fact about psychology is the fact of mediation.” Lev Vygotsky

10 “The central fact about psychology is the fact of mediation.” Lev Vygotsky Self-regulation and private speech Private speech: phenomenon in young children in which they spontaneously articulate commands, descriptions and reminders to themselves (self-talk) Private speech is a powerful clue to the linguistic character of human thought. Can you think of examples where you have used “private speech”/ self-talk for a new task? How can you support students’ “private speech”/ self-talk? Why do you think it is important as a teacher?

11 THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT “... is the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” Lev Vygotsky, 1935

12 POTENTIAL LEVEL ACTUAL LEVEL INSTRUCTION LEARNINGLEARNING ZPD

13 Vygotsky’s Theory: Summary of assumptions Learning and Instruction with ZPD Learning Natural byproduct of involvement in tasks with adults or more competent peers Vicarious Learning Private Speech: Thinking aloud Early years: End of task Later years: Beginning, during, and end of task Instruction Scaffolding Fading

14 Language: Suggestions for Teachers Students cannot get too much practice in their use of language. Particularly true in math and science Remind students that struggling to put understanding into words is a normal part of learning and development. We’ve all said at some point in our lives. I know what I’m trying to say, I just can’t put it into words. Provide students with scaffolding as they practice language. Provide technical terms Embellish students’ descriptions

15 Evaluation of the Theory Strengths Attention of social, cultural, and context variables in learning Sensitivity to diversity of development Focused on individual differences (unlike Piaget) Weaknesses Vagueness of notion of ZPD Insufficient attention to development issues Difficulties of studying cultural-historical contexts

16 CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VYGOTSKYPIAGET and 1. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS PRIMARILY A FUNCTION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL INTERACTION Adult-child interaction INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTION Active agency

17 Comparison of Piaget and Vygotsky Instruction important; zone of proximal development (ZPD) Formal instruction does not have significant impact Role of Instruction More strongly influenced by those more intellectually advanced More strongly influenced by peers Role of Social Interaction VygotskyPiaget


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