2Lev Vygotsky‘s Biography Lev Vygotsky was born on November 5,1896 in Western Russia and died in His father , Semi L`vovich, founded the "Society of Education in Gomel", and held a wide range of active interests including foreign language ,history, literature, theater, and art. His mother was educated as a teacher . Both parents were fluent in several foreign languages.
3Vigotsky was first educated as lawyer at the Moscow University Vigotsky was first educated as lawyer at the Moscow University . After graduation he started teaching science at various institutions. Also he studied a range of topics while attending university which were sociology, linguistics, philosophy. However , his formal work in psychology did not begin until 1924 when he attended the Institute of Psychology in Moscow and began collaborating with Alexei Leontiev, Alexander Luria, and others.
4Contributions to Psychology Lev Vygotsky is considered a seminal thinker in psychology, and much of his work is still being discovered and explored today. Part of this was because his work was often criticized by the Communist Party in Russia, and so his writings were largely inaccessible to the Western world. His premature death at age 38 also contributed to his obscurity.
5Sociocultural theoryLev Vygostsky also suggested that human development results from a dynamic interaction between individuals and society. Through this interaction, children learn gradually and continuously from parent and teachers. This learning, however, can vary from one culture to the next. It is important to note that Vygotsky's theory emphasizes the dynamic nature of this interaction.
7Application of the Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory Some schools have traditionally held a instructionist model in which a teacher transmits information to students. In contrast, Vygotsky’s theory promotes learning contexts in which students play an active role in learning.
8Elements of Socio-cultural Theory Children, especially toddlers and preschoolers , often speak aloud to them selves as they are trying to understand something. This self-talk helps them to work things out in their own minds .
9The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) Is somewhat self-explanatory; it refers to anyone who has better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner , with respect to a particular task , process, or concept. The MKO is normally thought of as being a teacher, trainer , or older adult, but the MKO could also peers, a younger person , or even computers.
10Zone of Proximal Development According to Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development is "the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers."
11The zone of proximal development contains two features : 1. Scaffolding : requires that an instructor shows by examples how to solve a problem , while controlling the learning environment so that students can take things step by step expanding their base of knowledge without excessive frustration.
122. Reciprocal Teaching: a highly successful teaching method , reciprocal teaching provides an environment of open dialogue between student and teacher which goes beyond a simple question and answer session.
134 Basic Principles Underlying The Vygotskian Framework Children construct their knowledgeDevelopment can not be separated from its social context .Learning can lead developmentLanguage plays a central role in mental development.
14Lev Vygotsky establishes that there are two types of mental functions : the lower and the upper. Lower mental functions: are those with which we are born, are the natural functions and are genetically determined. Behavior derived from lower mental functions is limited; It is conditioned by what we can do. These functions we limited our behavior to a reaction or response to the environment.
15The higher mental functions: are acquired and developed through social interaction. Given that the individual is in a specific society with a culture specific. The higher mental functions are determined by the way of being of that society: the higher mental functions are culturally mediated. For Lev Vygotsky, greater social interaction, more knowledge, more possibilities for action, more robust mental functions.
16Lev Vygotsky believes that human development is a process of cultural development, being the activity of the man engine in the process of human development. The concept of activity in this way acquires an especially important role in his theory. For him, the process of formation of the higher psychological functions will be through practical and instrumental, but not individual activity, but in the interaction or social cooperation.
17conclusión Now we know more about Vygotsky’s life and theories. We learn that the language is also crucial and interrelated with the action, providing an additional tool used both to reflect on and direct behavior.We can say that all these investigations are of utmost importance for education since these works provide tools for the development of the individual learning and can be used by an educator or the apprentice as the same may apply the best methodology of study according to your needs.
18BibliographyBiography of vygotsky september 10,2011/vygotsky.htmHistory about Vygotskyhttp://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history september11,2011/vygotsky.htmVygotsky's developmental theory http/:www.youtube.com/september12,2011.Vygotsky's life and works September 10,2011/vygotsky.htm