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Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Adapting Instruction.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Adapting Instruction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Adapting Instruction 4.1

2 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Spear-Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R.J. (2001). What science offers teachers of reading. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(1), Not long ago, one of us heard a disturbing but revealing story about a school district participating in a research project on early intervention with at-risk readers. Like other successful interventions in reading, this program combined explicit instruction in word analysis (i.e., using knowledge about the alphabetic principle to read unfamiliar words), popularly known as phonics instruction, with ample practice in reading connected text and developing comprehension. However, the school district in question decided to drop the program-despite convincing data of its effectiveness with their own students- because, said district administrators, it was against their ‘philosophy’ to teach phonics.

3 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Spear-Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R.J. (2001). What science offers teachers of reading. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(1), In contrast, phonics instruction is sometimes presented as some sort of magic elixir for reading difficulties. For instance, on a recent television news show, a prominent teacher educator demonstrated his highly structured phonics program with a group of at-risk youngsters, claiming not only that all children learned to read easily with his program, but that they could do so in kindergarten.

4 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Spear-Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R.J. (2001). What science offers teachers of reading. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(1), There is a very substantial research literature in the field of reading, but from these and many other incidents, one wouldn’t know it. Instead, as in the first illustration, educational decisions that might be made by reference to a base of scientific knowledge frequently are treated as though they are entirely a matter of personal belief. And, without knowledge of the scientific evidence about reading, it is difficult for anyone, including educators, to evaluate sweeping claims about the effectiveness of specific programs, like those in the second illustration.

5 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Spear-Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R.J. (2001). What science offers teachers of reading. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(1), In this article we examine what science offers teachers of reading, both general and special educators. Although we think that science has something to offer teachers in many domains, we concentrate on reading for several reasons. First, there is probably more scientific knowledge about how children learn to read, and about why some children experience reading difficulties, than about any other field of education. Second, despite this large body of evidence, the debate about how, and even whether, scientific evidence should inform educational practice has been particularly fierce in the domain of reading. And finally, reading difficulties are a common reason for failure in school, as well as the most frequent reason for identifying children as needing learning disabilities service (Moats & Lyon, 1993).

6 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Spear-Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R.J. (2001). What science offers teachers of reading. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(1), There is a ‘research-to-practice gap’ in many areas of education, not only in reading. …misconceptions about the relationship between research and practice - such as the idea that researchers do not respect teachers or that empirical research in education is a failure - are common in the professional literature.

7 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Spear-Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R.J. (2001). What science offers teachers of reading. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(1), Why does this disconnect between educators and scientific knowledge exist? One important reason may be that many teachers simply are not exposed to scientific research on reading during their preservice or inservice preparation. …especially at the preservice level, teachers usually receive only a cursory introduction to reading instruction (Moats, 1995, 1999). Both general and special educators have reported that their real education occurs after they have entered a classroom (Lyon, Vaasen, & Toomey, 1989).

8 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Spear-Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R.J. (2001). What science offers teachers of reading. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(1), …One study (Vaughn, Moody, & Schumm, 1998), in which special education teachers were observed delivering reading instruction to elementary students with learning disabilities over the course of a year, found that there was little direct instruction addressing word analysis, perhaps reflecting teachers’ lack of preparation in this area.

9 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Spear-Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R.J. (2001). What science offers teachers of reading. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(1), Of course, based on practical experience, educators may have excellent intuitions about what is effective in reading instruction, and many teachers without knowledge of scientific research still teach well; neither is scientific knowledge about reading sufficient to make one a good teacher. Nevertheless, it makes little sense for educators to be cut off from what science has to offer. Most important, knowledgeable teachers are essential for ensuring that scientific research on reading benefits children.

10 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Instruction: What works? Early educational research focused on teacher variables like “whether teachers were liked by students and other school personnel” (p. 1). In the late 50s interest in effective teaching arose after the launch of “Sputnik” and tended to focus on sciences, specifically “new math.” “This type of research and development effort failed to take into account the role of teachers, focusing entirely on content and curriculum. Because of this, little knowledge was gained on effects of teacher behaviors. …some classrooms…succeeded while other classrooms failed.

11 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Instruction: What works? In the early 1970s, researchers…focused on behaviors exhibited by teachers that were linked to student achievement gains. This research was important because it finally began to address the issue of what teachers could do to maximize student learning. …More recently, the roles of variables such as meaningfulness, concreteness, and active thinking have been investigated. These variables also have been found to be associated positively with student learning.

12 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Instruction: What works? …teachers who learn and practice certain teaching skills are more effective than teachers who do not. The elitist notion that anyone can teach also has been refuted, with teaching now defined more strictly than just a ‘presence in a classroom.’ It is now known that teachers can manipulate their behavior to make critical differences in student learning. This fact is as true for special education as it is for ‘regular education’” (p. 2).

13 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Instruction: What works? “…educators can increase the amount of time spent on academic tasks and can improve instruction by (a) actively engaging students on task during instruction; (b) presenting information in clear, concise ways; (c) asking students questions relevant to the instructional objectives; (d) keeping students actively involved in relevant instructional activities; and (e) monitoring student’s performance” (p. 3).

14 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Correlations

15 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Teacher Effectiveness Literature tells us that major influences on student succes are… “Teachers maintain an academic focus… Teachers maintain direction and control in the management of the classroom learning environment. Teachers hold high expectations for academic progress… Students are accountable for satisfactory completion of classroom work. Students work together, showing cooperation rather than competition. The affective climate of the classroom learning environment is not negative.” (p. 81) Read pp

16 Call up meta.ppt slides Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc.

17 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Effect Size - Meta-Analysis “Meta-analysis aggregates findings across a particular area of research by converting data in each study to a common metric or effect size (ES). ES’s may range from zero (meaning no observable effect) to one or greater and may be thought of a…a standard deviation unit. While a particular ES possesses no inherent value, ESs approaching the range of.40 or greater conventionally tend to be considered significant.”

18 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Effect Size - Meta-Analysis Distribute “Some methods are more effective than others” by Lloyd, Forness, and Kavale. Note interventions that work or have promise: Mnemonic Strategies 1.62 Enhancing Reading Comprehension 1.13 Behavior Modification.93 Direct Instruction.84 Cognitive Behavior Modification.71 Formative Evaluation.70 Early intervention.68

19 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Stages of Learning Acquisition Maintenance Generalization 4.2

20 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Instruction [Fig. 4-1] (Read p. 82) 4.3

21 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Principles of Instruction Select Appropriate Learning Task Break the Learning Task into Teachable Subcomponents –Task analysis Use systematic Instructional Procedures –Demonstration –Guided practice –Independent practice 4.4

22 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. What About Discovery Learning? “In discovery learning information and skills are not taught directly. Instead, the teacher arranges the learning environment and students explore that environment as they attempt to discover the facts, concepts, principles and skills that make up the school curriculum. Discovery approaches are considered constructivist because students are expected to construct their own knowledge by building on the prior knowledge they bring to the learning task. For example, proponents of the whole- language approach to reading and writing instruction recommend discovery learning. Students are expected to become proficient readers and writers by ‘exposure to and participation in many experiences involving written language not through direct teaching’.

23 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. What About Discovery Learning? “Unfortunately, some students do not succeed in programs in which discovery learning is the norm. In fact, Mayer (2004) asserts that “there is sufficient research evidence to make any reasonable person skeptical about the benefits of discovery learning.” Students with mild disabilities and others at risk for academic learning problems are more likely to succeed when instruction is presented using the principles of direct teaching.”

24 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. You make the call. As Morsink and Lenk point out, effective instruction of students with special needs can take place in any setting, general education or special, if teachers ‘(a) engage in teacher-directed instruction, (b) provide students with opportunities for active academic responding, (c) use high rates of contingent reinforcement, (d) adapt teaching strategies to accommodate individual differences‘

25 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. What About Discovery Learning? Cancel this slide - Read p. 85.

26 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. More Principles of Instruction Consider Both Speed and Accuracy (p. 89) Maximize Engaged Time (p. 90) Give Clear Task Directions (p. 90) Provide Consequences for Successful Task Performance (p. 91) Check for Maintenance and Generalization (p. 93) Try the Least Intrusive Intervention First (if change is needed) (p. 94) 4.5

27 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Methods for Gathering Data Determine the Student’s Current Levels of Performance –Curriculum–based assessment –Inventories –Criterion-referenced tests (Brigance) Evaluate Progress –Rubrics Analyze Reasons for Task Failure –Error analysis 4.6

28 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Strategies for Adapting instruction Modify Materials and Activities –Clarify Task Directions –Add Prompts –Teach to Specific Student Errors Change Teaching Procedures –Present Additional Skills and Information –Provide Additional Guided Practice –Make Consequences for Successful Performance More Attractive –Slow the Pace of Instruction 4.7

29 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. More Strategies for Adapting instruction Alter Task Requirements –Change the Criteria for Successful Performance (Increase Standards) –Change the Task Characteristics –Break Task into Smaller Subtasks Select Alternate Task –Substitute a Similar but Easier Task –Substitute a Prerequisite Task 4.8

30 Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms 7 th edition Rena B. Lewis and Donald Doorlag Pearson Education, Inc. Making Test Accommodations Directions/Instructions Demonstrations Time Limits Presentation Mode Response Mode Aids Prompts and Cues Feedback Positive Reinforcement Physical Location 4.9


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