Presentation on theme: "Gait Analysis Study of human locomotion Walking and running"— Presentation transcript:
1 Gait Analysis Study of human locomotion Walking and running Walking is a series of gait cyclesA single gait cycle is known as a STRIDE
2 The Main Tasks of the Gait Cycle (1) Weight acceptancemost demanding task in the gait cycleinvolves the transfer of body weight onto a limb that has just finished swinging forward and has an unstable alignment.Shock absorption and the maintenance of a forward body progression
3 (2) single limb support (3) limb advancement One limb must support the entire body weightSame limb must provide truncal stability while bodily progression is continued.(3) limb advancementRequires foot clearance from the floorThe limb swings through three positions as it travels to its destination in front of the body.
4 Why Study Normal Gait?Loss of the ability to walk can result is significant health problems(co-morbidities)Pain, injury, paralysis or tissue damage can alter normal gait and lead to:further musculoskeletal problems (compensations)Cardiovascular and pulmonary problems (inactivity due to pain)Psychological problems (depression)
5 Sports, Exercise/Fitness, and Rehabilitation Professionals must have a sound knowledge of normal gait so they can accurately detect, interpret, and ultimately correct deviations and/or gait pathologies to restore “normal,” pain-free functionIt is important to remember that each person displays “normal” variations from the normal pattern of walkingULTIMATE GOAL: KEEP YOURSELF AND YOUR PATIENTS/CLIENTS MOVING PAIN-FREE THROUGHOUT YOUR/THEIR LIFESPANS!!!
6 Normal Walking Requirements There are (4) major criteria essential to walking.Equilibriumthe ability to assume an upright posture and maintain balance.Locomotionthe ability to initiate and maintain rhythmic stepping
7 Walking Requirements Cont’d Musculoskeletal Integritynormal bone, joint, and muscle functionNeurological Control,must receive and send messages telling the body how and when to move. (visual, vestibular, auditory, sensorimotor input)
8 Gait Cycle or Stride A single gait cycle or stride is defined: Period when 1 foot contacts the ground to when that same foot contacts the ground againEach stride has 2 phases:Stance PhaseFoot in contact with the groundSwing PhaseFoot NOT in contact with the ground
14 Stance Phase of Gait When the foot is contact with the ground only Propulsion phaseStance phase has 5 parts:Initial Contact (Heel Strike) (1)Loading Response (Foot Flat) (2)Midstance (2)Terminal Stance (3)Toe Off (Pre-Swing) (4)(Missing Loading Response in picture)
16 Initial ContactPhase 1The moment when the red foot just touches the floor.The heel (calcaneous) is the first bone of the foot to touch the ground.Meanwhile, the blue leg is at the end of terminal stance.
17 Static Positions at Initial Contact FREEZE FRAME POSITIONSShoulder is extendedPelvis is rotated leftHip is flexed and externally rotatedKnee is fully extendedAnkle is dorsiflexedFoot is supinatedToes are slightly extended
18 Loading Response Phase 2 The double stance period beginning Body weight is transferred onto the red leg.Phase 2 is important for shock absorption, weight-bearing, and forward progression.The blue leg is in the pre-swing phase.
19 Static Positions at Loading Response Shoulder is slightly extendedPelvis is rotated lefthip is flexed and slightly externally rotatedknee is slightly flexedankle is plantarflexing to neutralfoot is neutralToes are neutral
20 Midstance Phase 3 single limb support interval. Begins with the lifting of the blue foot and continues until body weight is aligned over the red (supporting) foot.The red leg advances over the red foot The blue leg is in its mid- swing phase.
21 Static Positions at Midstance Shoulder is in neutralPelvis is in neutral rotationHip is in neutralKnee is fully extendedAnkle is relatively neutralFoot is pronatedToes are neutral
22 Terminal StancePhase 4Begins when the red heel rises and continues until the heel of the blue foot hits the ground.Body weight progresses beyond the red foot
23 Static Positions at Terminal Stance Shoulder is slightly flexedPelvis is rotated leftHip is extended and internally rotatedKnee is fully extendedAnkle is dorsiflexedFoot is slightly supinatedToes are neutral
24 Toe-Off Phase 5 The second double stance interval in the gait cycle. Begins with the initial contact of the blue foot and ends with red toe-off.Transfer of body weight from ipsilateral to opposite limb takes place.
25 Static Positions at Toe-Off Shoulder is flexedPelvis is rotated rightHip is fully extended and internally rotatedKnee is fully extendedAnkle is plantarflexedFoot is fully supinatedToes are fully extended
26 Stance Phase Characteristics During a single stride, there are 2 periods of double limb support (both feet on ground):Loading response (right) & Toe Off (left)Loading response (left) & Toe Off (right)
28 Swing Phase When foot is NOT contacting the ground, it is swinging! Limb advancement phase3 parts of swing phase:Initial swingMidswingTerminal swing
29 Motions during Swing Phase Shoulder extendsSpine rotates rightPelvis rotates left (passive)Hip flexes, ERsKnee flexes, then extendsAnkle dorsiflexesFoot supination (inversion)Toes extend
30 Initial SwingPhase 6Begins when the red foot is lifted from the floor and ends when the red swinging foot is opposite the blue stance foot.It is during this phase that a footdrop gait is most apparent.The blue leg is in mid- stance.
31 Static Positions at Initial Swing Shoulder is flexedSpine is rotated leftPelvis is rotated righthip is slightly extended and internally rotatedKnee is slightly flexedAnkle is fully plantarflexedFoot is supinatedToes are slightly flexed
32 MidswingPhase 7Starts at the end of the initial swing and continues until the red swinging limb is in front of the bodyAdvancement of the red legThe blue leg is in late mid-stance.
33 Static Positions at Midswing Shoulder is neutralSpine is neutralPelvis is neutralHip is neutralKnee is flexed 60-90°Ankle is plantarflexed to neutralFoot is neutralToes are slightly extended
34 Terminal SwingPhase 8Begins at the end of midswing and ends when the foot touches the floor.Limb advancement is completed at the end of this phase.
35 Static Positions at Terminal Swing Shoulder is extendedSpine is rotated rightPelvis is rotated leftHip is flexed and externally rotatedKnee is fully extendedAnkle is fully dorsiflexedFoot is neutralToes are slightly extended
36 Gait Pathologies Deviations from “normal” gait pattern Result from PainInjury (ROM restrictions)Surgery (ROM restrictions)WeaknessBalance deficitsConsider all “normal” components of stance and swing phase of a gait cycle or strideCompare right and left sides when observing a person’s gait pattern
37 Antalgic Gait Painful leg gait Decreased stance time on painful leg Increased swing time on painful legDecreased swing time on non-painful legIncreased stance time on non-painful leg
38 Trendelenburg Gait Gluteus medius weakness gait Lateral trunk lean towards side of weaknessMaintain body’s COG over weak side during stance phase
39 Flexed Knee Gait Flexed knees Flexed trunk posture No arm swing No initial contactNo Toe-offNo hip extensionShort stepShortened strideCOG stays within BOSCommon in elderly with fear of falling