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Excessive Plantarflexion Causes Triceps surae contracture Triceps surae spasticity Pre-tibial weakness Voluntary/compensatory 2 0 weak quadriceps
Loading Response Deviations FF contact rapid foot flat (flexible ankle) FF contact sustained FF contact foot flat (rigid ankle) knee hyperextension FF = fore foot
Midstance Deviations Premature heel rise Foot flat w/ restrained tibia Fwd. trunk lean, short contralateral step
Terminal Stance Deviations Excessive heel rise Pelvic obliquity high on side of deviation
Mid Swing Deviations Toe Drag Compensatory hip and/or knee flexion
Excessive Dorsiflexion Weak triceps surae Ankle joint fusion at neutral Excessive knee flexion
Loading Response Deviations Higher heel rocker knee quad demand
Loading Response Deviations 2 0 Rigid AFO Rigid AFO knee and hip flexion
Terminal Stance Deviations Prolonged heel contact OR knee w/ heel rise
Pre Swing Deviations Sustained heel contact plantarflexion
Inadequate Knee Flexion / Excessive Extension Quadriceps weakness Pain Quadriceps spasticity Excessive ankle plantarflexion
Pre Swing and Initial Swing ankle dorsiflexion w/ prolonged heel contact Toe Drag
Midstance when knee lacks hyperextension range Retraction of tibia (soleus) and femur (gluteus max)
Inadequate knee flexion 2 0 excessive plantarflexion Overall disruption of normal coordination between the knee and ankle
Inadequate Knee Extension / Excessive Knee Flexion Causes Hamstring spasticity Knee flexion contracture Soleus weakness Excessive ankle plantarflexion
Excessive Knee Flexion - Loading Response Resulting in ankle dorsiflexion
Excessive Knee Flexion - Midswing As a compensation for ankle plantarflexion
Inadequate Knee Extension – Midstance and Terminal Stance Accompanied w/ ankle dorsiflexion limb and body advancement
Inadequate Knee Extension – Terminal Swing Loss of terminal reach
Inadequate Hip Extension – Excessive Hip Flexion Hip flexion contracture Iliotibial band contracture Hip flexor spasticity Pain Voluntary/Compensatory
Inadequate Hip Extension – TSt step length and body advancement Contracture
Excessive Hip Flexion - MSw Compensation for ankle plantarflexion
Inadequate Hip Flexion Hip flexor weakness Hip joint arthrodesis
Inadequate Hip Flexion - TSw Compensation for weak quadriceps that cannot extend the knee (flaccid knee) Rapid hip Rapid hip /
Compensations for Inadequate Hip Flexion – PSw/ISw Compensatory posterior pelvic tilt
Compensations for Inadequate Hip Flexion – PSw/ISw Voluntary excessive (magnitude & velocity) knee flexion
Excessive Hip Adduction Causes: Ipsilateral abductor weakness Adduction contracture or spasticity Using adductors as hip flexors Contralateral hip abduction contracture
Deviations Swing “Scissor Gait”Combined hip & IR
Deviations 2 0 glute med weakness 2 0 adductor contracture or spasticity 2 0 adductors used as hip flexors
Excessive Hip Abduction Causes Ipsilateral abduction contracture Contralateral adduction contracture Scoliosis w/ pelvic obliquity
Deviations 2 0 contralateral abduction or ipsilateral adduction contracture Compensation for inadequate knee flexion
Excessive Hip External Rotation Causes Gluteus maximus overactivity Excessive ankle plantarflexion
Excessive Hip Internal Rotation Causes Medial hamstring overactivity Adductor overactivity Anterior abductor overactivity Quadriceps weakness
2) Knee. 3) Hip 4) Head, Trunk and Pelvis 5) Arm.
Gait Training - I. Normal Gait & Abnormal Gait 60%40%
Normal gait is defined as is defined as (form of bipedal locomotion) (form of bipedal locomotion) or as a method of locomotion involving the use of.
Human Locomotion Phases of the Gait Cycle And Determinants of Gait.
Gait (3) Sagittal Plane Analysis Lecture Notes. Example To Make Things Clear If during gait knee flexion is necessary, & a flexion moment is acting.
Figure Figure Figure Figure
Support Events Foot (Heel) Strike Foot Flat Midstance Heel Off Foot (Toe) Off Swing Events Pre swing Midswing Terminal swing.
1 The Gait Cycle:. 2 Walking – The Stance Phase 3 Components of the Stance Phase Stance phase comprises 60% of the gait cycle Heel strike – moment when.
Upon completion of this lecture student will be able to: Identify different parts of transfemoral prosthesis. Differentiate between Quadrilateral.
Progression: The basic objective of the locomotor system is to move the body forward from the current site to a new location so the hands and head can.
Initial Contact Loading Response Mid-Stance Terminal Stance Pre-Swing Initial Swing Mid-Swing Terminal Swing Normal Human Locomotion.
$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $100$100$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 SHOULDER and ARM FINAL ROUND $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 ELBOW and FOREARM HIPS and THIGH KNEE and.
Dr.Manal Radwan Salim Lecturer of Physical Therapy Pharos University Pathomechanics of Gait and Dynamic Postures part 2.
Mitchell L. Goldflies, M.D.. Overview Introduction Stance Swing Normal and Abnormal Gait.
Our vision: Healthier communities, Excellence in healthcare Our values: Teamwork, Honesty, Respect, Ethical, Excellence, Caring, Commitment, Courage Prosthetic.
Chapter 12 Ambulation and Ambulation Aids. Gait = A series of rhythmical, alternating movements of the limbs and trunk that causes a forward progression.
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ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 6. Physical assessment PHYSIOTHERAPY ASSESSMENT session CHAPTER 6 PART
ESS 303 – Biomechanics Ankle and Foot. Tibiofibular Joint Similar to radioulnar joint Superior tibiofibular joint Middle tibiofibular joint (interosseus.
Kinesiology Laboratory 8 Posture and Gait Analysis.
Name: Action: Gluteus maximus Hip extension Muscle.
Muscles of the Human Body! Muscles that Move the Thigh, Leg, Ankle, & Toes.
GAIT ANALYSIS WALKING: depends upon the repeated performance by the lower limbs of a sequence of motions which advance the body along a desired line of.
Biomechanics foot ankle: Gait Stance Phase Gait60% of cycle –Initial contact –Loading response –Midstance –Terminal Stance –Preswing Swing.
Stair Gait Lecture Notes. Stair Gait Stair climbing is a general type of motion, because it involves an angular motion in the joints & a translatory.
Hip & Pelvis. Hip Joint n Between Acetabulum (Pelvis) & Head of Femur n Ball and Socket Joint n Weight Bearing.
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Iliopsoas (Psoas major & Iliacus) Action –flexion at hip –flexion at lumbar intervertebral joints (psoas major only)
1 International Committee of the Red Cross Polypropylene Technology Manufacture of Lower Limb Prostheses in PP TF STATIC ALIGNMENT.
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Biomechanical Examination. Femoral Anteversion How far in can the femur be rotated? How far out? Does the halfway point leave the femur internally or.
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Determinants of Gait. I. Displacement of center of gravity (COG). II. Factors responsible for minimizing displacement of center of gravity.
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Lateral Pterygoid You need to dissect the mandible in order to see this Works with medial pterygoid to lower the mandible and open the jaw This is a deep.
Copyright © F.A. Davis Company Chapter 7 Evaluation of Gait.
Rectus Abdominus Action: flex lumbar portion of vertebral column.
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