Stair Gait Lecture Notes.

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Stair Gait Lecture Notes

Stair Gait Stair climbing is a general type of motion, because it involves an angular motion in the joints & a translatory movement of the whole body. Stair gate is similar to level-ground gait: They both involve swing & stance phases Progression of the body is done by alternating movement of lower extremities Lower extremities must balance and carry HAT (head, arms, trunk) Like walking, in stair climbing we have a time when both feet are touching the steps. One foot on the first step & the other on the second step

Stair Gait Stair gate is different than level-ground gait:
The firs thing we put on the stair is the anterior portion of the foot, unlike in level walking where posterior portion of the foot (heel) is put first on the ground The subphases of stance & swing phase are different

Phases of Stair Gait Stance phase includes: Swing phase includes:
Weight Acceptance Pull Up Forward Continuation Swing phase includes: Foot Clearance Foot Placement

Stance Phase 1- Weight Acceptance
Take the first 14% of the stair gait cycle We can compare it to the heel strike of walking gait, because here the person is ready to load his weight to that extremity

Stance Phase 2- Pull Up Meaning pull up the other leg, along with the whole body Extends from 14% to 32% of the stair gait cycle It is a period of single limb support, equivalent to midstance in walking gait It is a time of instability, because all of the body weight is shifted to the stance extremity Knee extensors (quadriceps) are responsible for most energy generation required here

Stance Phase 3- Forward Continuous
The period from 32% to 64% of stair gait cycle Equivalent to midstance, heel off & toe off of walking gait Ankle planterflexors are responsible for most energy generation required here

¿Question? If a person can walk normally, can you tell if he/she can go upstairs?! No, because the ranges of motion required for stair gait is different than the ranges of motion required for walking gait. The amount of energy required is the least in walking. Stair climbing require more energy & more muscle activity

Swing Phase 1- Foot Clearance
When the person takes the whole foot off the first step 2- Foot Placement When the person is ready to put the foot on the second step

Stair Gait Range of Motion For The Joints in Stance Phase
Concentric contraction of Gluteus maximus will take the hip from 60° of flexion to 5° of extension Concentric contraction of Quadriceps will take the knee from 85° of flexion to 10° of extension Concentric contraction of Gastoctemius will take the ankle from 25° of dorsiflexion to 15° of planterflexion

From All That We Notice Concentric contraction is happening in all of these muscle , because we are taking the body weight forward & upward Center of gravity is moving forward & upward If we are doing upward motion against gravity we need concentric contraction to happen

Stair Gait Range of Motion For The Joints in Swing Phase
Concentric contraction of Gluteus medius will cause 10° -20° to 40°-60° of flexion in the hip joint Concentric contraction of the hamstrings will cause 10° of flexion to 90° -100° flexion in the knee joint Concentric contraction of the tibialis anterior will cause 10° of planterflexion to 20° of dorsiflexion in the ankle joint

Again We Notice! Concentric contraction is happening in all of these muscle , because we are taking the body weight forward & upward Center of gravity is moving forward & upward If we are doing upward motion against gravity we need concentric contraction to happen

But, What If We Are Going Down Stairs?!
Eccentric contraction will happen in all of the previous muscles

Another Note Ranges of motion will change depending on the stair, different stairs causes varying ranges of motion.

 Good Luck 