Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Development of Human Locomotion. What Is Locomotion? Locomotion involves moving from place to place. In humans, this includes moving on one,"— Presentation transcript:
chapter 6 Development of Human Locomotion
What Is Locomotion? Locomotion involves moving from place to place. In humans, this includes moving on one, two, or four limbs. –Upright, bipedal –Crawling, walking, running –Hopping, skipping, galloping, and others
Early Locomotion Crawling (commando crawl): moving on hands and abdomen Creeping: moving on hands and knees Other forms of early locomotion
Walking Walking is the first form of upright, bipedal locomotion. Walking is defined by –a 50% phasing of the legs (Clark, Whitall, & Phillips, 1988) and –a period of double support (when both feet are on the ground) followed by a period of single support.
Early Walking Independent steps are taken. Feet are flat, spread wide apart, with out- toeing. Arms are in high guard. Early walking patterns tend to increase stability and balance. Rate controllers for early walking are strength (to support body on one leg) and balance.
Proficient Walking Trade stability for mobility Stride length increases. –Heel – forefoot pattern Base of support is reduced. –Stride width narrows –Reduced out-toeing Double knee-lock Pelvis is rotated. Opposition (arms to legs) occurs.
Later Walking Maximize stability over mobility Rate controllers in later walking are any changes associated with aging process decreased muscle mass, orthopaedic disorders, disease, pain, fear, motivation, upper-body posture Out-toeing increases. Stride length decreases. Pelvic rotation decreases. Speed decreases. Objects are used for balance.
Running Occurs 6 to 7 months after walking initiation Defined by –a 50% phasing –a flight phase followed by single support
Early Running Stability over mobility – “old behaviors” return Arms in high guard, limited range of motion, stride length short, little rotation
A Beginning Runner
Proficient Running Reduce stability to increase mobility Increased stride length Planar movement Narrow base of support Trunk rotation Opposition
A Proficient Runner
Observation Plan for Running Leg action From the side: Is there flight between steps? No Yes Prerun Does the knee flex to < 90°? NoYes Step I Step 2 or 3 Minimal flight, From front or rear: Does swing flat-footed leg remain primarily in sagittal plane? No Yes Step 2. Step 3. Crossover swing Direct projection
Observation Plan for Running Arm action From the side: Are arms active? NoYes Step 1Steps 2 to 4 High or Do the arms move in true middle guard opposition to the legs? NoYes Step 2 Do arms drive forward, back? Bilateral NoYes arm swing Step 3 Step 2 Opposition, Opposition, oblique arm swing sagittal arm swing
Developmental Sequence of Running Leg action –Minimal flight, flat-footed –Crossover swing –Direct projection Arm action –High or middle guard –Bilateral arm swing –Opposition, oblique –Opposition, safittal
Running Across the Life Span: Later Running Patterns help increase stability and balance. –Disease states Decreased stride length and range of motion are apparent. Decreased speed is apparent. Rate controllers are balance and strength. Exercise can allow seniors to run for many years!
Other Locomotor Skills: Jumplike Activities Jump: individuals propel themselves off the ground with one or two feet, then land on two feet. Hop: individuals propel themselves off the ground with one foot and land on the same foot. Leap: individuals propel themselves off the ground with one foot, extend the flight period, and land on the opposite foot.
Jumping Children often begin simple forms of jumping before 2 years old. Individuals can perform either a vertical or horizontal (standing long) jump. Early characteristics of jumping include the following: –Performing vertical for both types of jump –One-foot takeoff or landing –No or limited preparatory movements –No arm action
Proficient Jumping Preparatory crouch maximizes takeoff force. Both feet leave the ground at the same time. Arm swing utilized during the jump. Vertical –Direct force downward. –Extend body. Horizontal –Direct force downward and backward. –Flex knees during flight.
Early Jumping vs. Proficient Jumping
Observation Plan for Standing Long Jump Takeoff Leg Action Do both feet leave the ground at same time? No Yes Step 1 Step 2, 3, or 4 One foot Do knees extend at same time takeoff or after heels come off ground? NoYes Step 2 Step 3 or 4 Knee Do heels come off ground before Extension 1 st knees extend, trunk tipping? NoYes Step 3Step 4 Simultaneous extensionHeels up 1 st
Observation Plan for Standing Long Jump Takeoff Arm Action Do arms swing at takeoff? NoYes Step 1 Step 2, 3, or 4 No action Do arms swing back before they swing forward at takeoff? NoYes Step 2 Step 3 or 4 Arms swing After extending, arms swing forward forward to position over head at takeoff NoYes Step 3Step 4 Arms extend Arms extend then fully flex then partially flex
Developmental Sequence for Long Jump Takeoff Leg action –One-foot takeoff –Knee extension first –Simultaneous extension –Heels up first Arm action –No action –Arms swing forward –Arms extend, then partially flex –Arms extend, then fully flex
Hopping Starts later than jumping Early characteristics of hopping –Support leg is lifted rather than used to project the body. –Swing leg is held rigidly in front of the body. –Arms are inactive.
More Advanced Hopping Characteristics of a proficient hopper Swing leg leads hip and moves through full range of motion. Support leg extends fully at the hip. Support leg is flexed on landing. Projection delay Oppositional arm movement generates force.
Developmental Sequence for Hopping Leg action –Momentary flight –Fall and catch –Projected takeoff, swing leg assists –Projection delay Arm action –Bilateral inactive –Bilateral reactive –Bilateral assist –Semi-opposition –Opposing assist
Early vs. Proficient Hopping
Rate Controllers in Early Jumplike Movements Jumping: force production (to project body off ground) Hopping: force production (to project body from one foot to the same foot), balance (to land on one foot), force absorption (to land repeatedly on same leg)
Other Locomotor Skills: Galloping, Sliding, Skipping Involve a combination of skills previously obtained (stepping, hopping, leaping) (Roberton & Halverson, 1984; Whitall, 1988) Gallop and slide are asymmetric: –Gallop = forward step on one foot, leap on other –Slide = sideways step on one foot, leap on other Skip is symmetric: –Skip = alternating step-hops on one foot, then the other
Early Galloping, Sliding, Skipping Early characteristics Arrhythmic and stiff movements Little or no arm movement Little or no trunk rotation Exaggeration of vertical lift Short stride or step length
Proficient Galloping, Sliding, Skipping Proficient skill patterns –Knees give on landing. –Movements are rhythmical. –Heel–foot or forefoot landings prevail. Galloping –Can lead with either leg. –Arms can be used for other purposes (e.g., clapping). Skipping –Arms swing in opposition.
Rate Controllers for Galloping, Sliding, and Skipping Galloping: coordination (uncoupling of legs) and differential force production (legs performing different tasks) Sliding: coordination (turning to one side) Skipping: coordination (ability to perform two tasks with one leg)