Presentation on theme: "Development of Human Locomotion"— Presentation transcript:
1Development of Human Locomotion chapter 6Development of Human Locomotion
2What Is Locomotion? Locomotion involves moving from place to place. In humans, this includes moving on one, two, or four limbs.Upright, bipedalCrawling, walking, runningHopping, skipping, galloping, and others
3Early LocomotionCrawling (commando crawl): moving on hands and abdomenCreeping: moving on hands and kneesOther forms of early locomotion
4Walking Walking is the first form of upright, bipedal locomotion. Walking is defined bya 50% phasing of the legs (Clark, Whitall, & Phillips, 1988) anda period of double support (when both feet are on the ground) followed by a period of single support.
5Early Walking Independent steps are taken. Feet are flat, spread wide apart, with out-toeing.Arms are in high guard.Early walking patterns tend to increase stability and balance.Rate controllers for early walking are strength (to support body on one leg) and balance.
6Proficient Walking Trade stability for mobility Stride length increases.Heel – forefoot patternBase of support is reduced.Stride width narrowsReduced out-toeingDouble knee-lockPelvis is rotated.Opposition (arms to legs) occurs.
7Later WalkingMaximize stability over mobilityRate controllers in later walking are anychanges associated with aging processdecreased muscle mass, orthopaedic disorders, disease, pain, fear, motivation, upper-body postureOut-toeing increases.Stride length decreases.Pelvic rotation decreases.Speed decreases.Objects are used for balance.
8Running Occurs 6 to 7 months after walking initiation Defined by a 50% phasinga flight phase followed by single support
9Early Running Stability over mobility – “old behaviors” return Arms in high guard, limited range of motion, stride length short, little rotation
13Observation Plan for Running Leg actionFrom the side: Is there flight between steps?No YesPrerun Does the knee flex to < 90°?No YesStep I Step 2 or 3Minimal flight, From front or rear: Does swingflat-footed leg remain primarily in sagittal plane?No YesStep Step 3.Crossover swing Direct projection
14Observation Plan for Running Arm actionFrom the side: Are arms active?No YesStep 1 Steps 2 to 4High or Do the arms move in truemiddle guard opposition to the legs?Step 2 Do arms drive forward, back?Bilateral No Yesarm swing Step Step 2Opposition, Opposition,oblique arm swing sagittal arm swing
15Developmental Sequence of Running Leg actionMinimal flight, flat-footedCrossover swingDirect projectionArm actionHigh or middle guardBilateral arm swingOpposition, obliqueOpposition, safittal
16Running Across the Life Span: Later Running Patterns help increase stability and balance.Disease statesDecreased stride length and range of motion are apparent.Decreased speed is apparent.Rate controllers are balance and strength.Exercise can allow seniors to run for many years!
17Other Locomotor Skills: Jumplike Activities Jump: individuals propel themselves off the ground with one or two feet, then land on two feet.Hop: individuals propel themselves off the ground with one foot and land on the same foot.Leap: individuals propel themselves off the ground with one foot, extend the flight period, and land on the opposite foot.
18JumpingChildren often begin simple forms of jumping before 2 years old.Individuals can perform either a vertical or horizontal (standing long) jump.Early characteristics of jumping include the following:Performing vertical for both types of jumpOne-foot takeoff or landingNo or limited preparatory movementsNo arm action
19Proficient Jumping Preparatory crouch maximizes takeoff force. Both feet leave the ground at the same time.Arm swing utilized during the jump.VerticalDirect force downward.Extend body.HorizontalDirect force downward and backward.Flex knees during flight.
21Observation Plan for Standing Long Jump Takeoff Leg ActionDo both feet leave the ground at same time?No YesStep Step 2, 3, or 4One foot Do knees extend at same timetakeoff or after heels come off ground?No YesStep Step 3 or 4Knee Do heels come off ground beforeExtension 1st knees extend, trunk tipping?No YesStep 3 Step 4Simultaneous extension Heels up 1st
22Observation Plan for Standing Long Jump Takeoff Arm ActionDo arms swing at takeoff?No YesStep Step 2, 3, or 4No action Do arms swing back before they swing forward at takeoff?Step Step 3 or 4Arms swing After extending, arms swing forwardforward to position over head at takeoffStep 3 Step 4Arms extend Arms extend then fully flexthen partially flex
23Developmental Sequence for Long Jump Takeoff Leg actionOne-foot takeoffKnee extension firstSimultaneous extensionHeels up firstArm actionNo actionArms swing forwardArms extend, then partially flexArms extend, then fully flex
24Hopping Starts later than jumping Early characteristics of hopping Support leg is lifted rather than used to project the body.Swing leg is held rigidly in front of the body.Arms are inactive.
25More Advanced Hopping Characteristics of a proficient hopper Swing leg leads hip and moves through full range of motion.Support leg extends fully at the hip.Support leg is flexed on landing.Projection delayOppositional arm movement generates force.
26Developmental Sequence for Hopping Leg actionMomentary flightFall and catchProjected takeoff, swing leg assistsProjection delayArm actionBilateral inactiveBilateral reactiveBilateral assistSemi-oppositionOpposing assist
28Rate Controllers in Early Jumplike Movements Jumping: force production (to project body off ground)Hopping: force production (to project body from one foot to the same foot), balance (to land on one foot), force absorption (to land repeatedly on same leg)
29Other Locomotor Skills: Galloping, Sliding, Skipping Involve a combination of skills previously obtained (stepping, hopping, leaping) (Roberton & Halverson, 1984; Whitall, 1988)Gallop and slide are asymmetric:Gallop = forward step on one foot, leap on otherSlide = sideways step on one foot, leap on otherSkip is symmetric:Skip = alternating step-hops on one foot, then the other
30Early Galloping, Sliding, Skipping Early characteristicsArrhythmic and stiff movementsLittle or no arm movementLittle or no trunk rotationExaggeration of vertical liftShort stride or step length
31Proficient Galloping, Sliding, Skipping Proficient skill patternsKnees give on landing.Movements are rhythmical.Heel–foot or forefoot landings prevail.GallopingCan lead with either leg.Arms can be used for other purposes (e.g., clapping).SkippingArms swing in opposition.
32Rate Controllers for Galloping, Sliding, and Skipping Galloping: coordination (uncoupling of legs) and differential force production (legs performing different tasks)Sliding: coordination (turning to one side)Skipping: coordination (ability to perform two tasks with one leg)