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Development of Human Locomotion

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1 Development of Human Locomotion
chapter 6 Development of Human Locomotion

2 What Is Locomotion? Locomotion involves moving from place to place.
In humans, this includes moving on one, two, or four limbs. Upright, bipedal Crawling, walking, running Hopping, skipping, galloping, and others

3 Early Locomotion Crawling (commando crawl): moving on hands and abdomen Creeping: moving on hands and knees Other forms of early locomotion

4 Walking Walking is the first form of upright, bipedal locomotion.
Walking is defined by a 50% phasing of the legs (Clark, Whitall, & Phillips, 1988) and a period of double support (when both feet are on the ground) followed by a period of single support.

5 Early Walking Independent steps are taken.
Feet are flat, spread wide apart, with out-toeing. Arms are in high guard. Early walking patterns tend to increase stability and balance. Rate controllers for early walking are strength (to support body on one leg) and balance.

6 Proficient Walking Trade stability for mobility
Stride length increases. Heel – forefoot pattern Base of support is reduced. Stride width narrows Reduced out-toeing Double knee-lock Pelvis is rotated. Opposition (arms to legs) occurs.

7 Later Walking Maximize stability over mobility Rate controllers in later walking are any changes associated with aging process decreased muscle mass, orthopaedic disorders, disease, pain, fear, motivation, upper-body posture Out-toeing increases. Stride length decreases. Pelvic rotation decreases. Speed decreases. Objects are used for balance.

8 Running Occurs 6 to 7 months after walking initiation Defined by
a 50% phasing a flight phase followed by single support

9 Early Running Stability over mobility – “old behaviors” return
Arms in high guard, limited range of motion, stride length short, little rotation

10 A Beginning Runner

11 Proficient Running Reduce stability to increase mobility
Increased stride length Planar movement Narrow base of support Trunk rotation Opposition

12 A Proficient Runner

13 Observation Plan for Running
Leg action From the side: Is there flight between steps? No Yes Prerun Does the knee flex to < 90°? No Yes Step I Step 2 or 3 Minimal flight, From front or rear: Does swing flat-footed leg remain primarily in sagittal plane? No Yes Step Step 3. Crossover swing Direct projection

14 Observation Plan for Running
Arm action From the side: Are arms active? No Yes Step 1 Steps 2 to 4 High or Do the arms move in true middle guard opposition to the legs? Step 2 Do arms drive forward, back? Bilateral No Yes arm swing Step Step 2 Opposition, Opposition, oblique arm swing sagittal arm swing

15 Developmental Sequence of Running
Leg action Minimal flight, flat-footed Crossover swing Direct projection Arm action High or middle guard Bilateral arm swing Opposition, oblique Opposition, safittal

16 Running Across the Life Span: Later Running
Patterns help increase stability and balance. Disease states Decreased stride length and range of motion are apparent. Decreased speed is apparent. Rate controllers are balance and strength. Exercise can allow seniors to run for many years!

17 Other Locomotor Skills: Jumplike Activities
Jump: individuals propel themselves off the ground with one or two feet, then land on two feet. Hop: individuals propel themselves off the ground with one foot and land on the same foot. Leap: individuals propel themselves off the ground with one foot, extend the flight period, and land on the opposite foot.

18 Jumping Children often begin simple forms of jumping before 2 years old. Individuals can perform either a vertical or horizontal (standing long) jump. Early characteristics of jumping include the following: Performing vertical for both types of jump One-foot takeoff or landing No or limited preparatory movements No arm action

19 Proficient Jumping Preparatory crouch maximizes takeoff force.
Both feet leave the ground at the same time. Arm swing utilized during the jump. Vertical Direct force downward. Extend body. Horizontal Direct force downward and backward. Flex knees during flight.

20 Early Jumping vs. Proficient Jumping

21 Observation Plan for Standing Long Jump Takeoff
Leg Action Do both feet leave the ground at same time? No Yes Step Step 2, 3, or 4 One foot Do knees extend at same time takeoff or after heels come off ground? No Yes Step Step 3 or 4 Knee Do heels come off ground before Extension 1st knees extend, trunk tipping? No Yes Step 3 Step 4 Simultaneous extension Heels up 1st

22 Observation Plan for Standing Long Jump Takeoff
Arm Action Do arms swing at takeoff? No Yes Step Step 2, 3, or 4 No action Do arms swing back before they swing forward at takeoff? Step Step 3 or 4 Arms swing After extending, arms swing forward forward to position over head at takeoff Step 3 Step 4 Arms extend Arms extend then fully flex then partially flex

23 Developmental Sequence for Long Jump Takeoff
Leg action One-foot takeoff Knee extension first Simultaneous extension Heels up first Arm action No action Arms swing forward Arms extend, then partially flex Arms extend, then fully flex

24 Hopping Starts later than jumping Early characteristics of hopping
Support leg is lifted rather than used to project the body. Swing leg is held rigidly in front of the body. Arms are inactive.

25 More Advanced Hopping Characteristics of a proficient hopper
Swing leg leads hip and moves through full range of motion. Support leg extends fully at the hip. Support leg is flexed on landing. Projection delay Oppositional arm movement generates force.

26 Developmental Sequence for Hopping
Leg action Momentary flight Fall and catch Projected takeoff, swing leg assists Projection delay Arm action Bilateral inactive Bilateral reactive Bilateral assist Semi-opposition Opposing assist

27 Early vs. Proficient Hopping

28 Rate Controllers in Early Jumplike Movements
Jumping: force production (to project body off ground) Hopping: force production (to project body from one foot to the same foot), balance (to land on one foot), force absorption (to land repeatedly on same leg)

29 Other Locomotor Skills: Galloping, Sliding, Skipping
Involve a combination of skills previously obtained (stepping, hopping, leaping) (Roberton & Halverson, 1984; Whitall, 1988) Gallop and slide are asymmetric: Gallop = forward step on one foot, leap on other Slide = sideways step on one foot, leap on other Skip is symmetric: Skip = alternating step-hops on one foot, then the other

30 Early Galloping, Sliding, Skipping
Early characteristics Arrhythmic and stiff movements Little or no arm movement Little or no trunk rotation Exaggeration of vertical lift Short stride or step length

31 Proficient Galloping, Sliding, Skipping
Proficient skill patterns Knees give on landing. Movements are rhythmical. Heel–foot or forefoot landings prevail. Galloping Can lead with either leg. Arms can be used for other purposes (e.g., clapping). Skipping Arms swing in opposition.

32 Rate Controllers for Galloping, Sliding, and Skipping
Galloping: coordination (uncoupling of legs) and differential force production (legs performing different tasks) Sliding: coordination (turning to one side) Skipping: coordination (ability to perform two tasks with one leg)

33 Observation of Hopping

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