Presentation on theme: "Explicit Instruction: An Overview"— Presentation transcript:
1 Explicit Instruction: An Overview Dee Berlinghoff, Ph.D. Mount Saint Mary College Sections Adapted from: Dr. Charles Hughes SPLED 412 The Pennsylvania State University AND A Regional Conversation about Specially Designed Instruction and Visioning the Continuum Specially Designed Instruction: Professional Development for RSE-TASC NetworkWelcome and housekeeping details-Lauri
2 Continuum of Services for Students with Disabilities (SWD) The continuum has changed over timeDCT is the first service delivered in General EdUsed as a way to give students access to the general curriculumAs the continuum evolves practice to evolve with it.Suzanne
3 Review of Background Knowledge Tell a partner what you think each of these means:specially designed instructionexplicit instructioncorrective feedbackBe ready to share your answer on your whiteboard
4 Specially Designed Instruction NYS Regulation: Section 200.1(vv) Adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible student, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction to address the unique needs that result from the student’s disability; and to ensure access of the student to the general curriculum, so that he or she can meet the education standards that apply to all students.What are the CRITICAL terms?Suzanne will facilitate and Rebecca will scribe for her.What are the verbs you see that operationalize this definition?Identify the actions of a teacher.Rebecca scribes the meaningful words to the Chairs.SuzanneDiscuss at table – what do these words meanScribe how does it happen
5 Let’s Review: Specially Designed Instruction Operational Definitions Adapting: making changes matched to student need or conditionContent: knowledge and skills that comprise curriculum to be masteredMethodology: actions by the teacher intended to produce or facilitate learning which includes the art and science of instruction (ex: teaching strategies including pacing, promoting active student engagement, positive classroom management – best practice and explicitly taught although not necessarily specially designed instruction)Delivery of instruction: teaching that results in access to, participation in, and progress in the curriculum for students with disabilities (ex: explicit instruction of learning strategies, task analysis, pre-teaching essential vocabulary, re-teaching specific skills or concepts, etc.)DEE_ I did this activity with them when I trained RA’ s . Yu probably want to just review it
6 Let’s Remember:Special education teachers are not content specialists:Special education teachers deliver instruction on skills and strategies that allow students to access the general curriculum and participation in the LRE.Remember: Special education is a service, not a place; effective instruction must occur no matter where the student receives his/her education.Dee - I used this slide also but left the two points I did not emphasizeSpEd teachers are not content specialists – they deliver instruction on skills and strategies that allow access and participation in gen ed.You should see something different when you see Special Education instruction. (things in blue) that are different for SpEdAll service delivery models must include instruction.
7 Special Education Teachers Should Deliver: Specially designed instruction can encompass different combinations of a variety of provisions for students with disabilities in order to meet their individual needs:AccommodationsModificationsSpecialized equipmentAdaptive technologyStrategy Instruction – explicitly planned and deliveredInstruction based on student needTask AnalysisScaffoldingCorrective FeedbackDevelopment of metacognitive strategies for independent learning and performanceDee - I used this slide also but left the two points I did not emphasizeSpEd teachers are not content specialists – they deliver instruction on skills and strategies that allow access and participation in gen ed.You should see something different when you see Special Education instruction. (things in blue) that are different for SpEdAll service delivery models must include instruction.
8 What does SDI look like?For students with disabilities, SDI will always be explicit instruction.What does effective explicit instruction look like?
9 In some classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “You do it alone” IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITY(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008
10 In some classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “I do it” Focus Lesson “You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITY(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008
11 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYA Structure for Instruction that Works(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008
12 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do ittogether”Collaborative“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYA Structure for Instruction that Works(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008
13 16 Elements of Explicit Instruction (Archer & Hughes, Chapter 1) 1. Focus on critical content.Teach only what is critical, not everything2. Sequence skills logically/hierarchically.Put easier skills before harder skillsDo a task analysis3. Break down complex skills and strategies.Smaller parts are easier to learnOnce the smaller parts are learned, put them together into a whole4. Design focused and organized lessons.
14 16 Elements of Explicit Instruction Begin lessons with clear goals and expectations.Tell students what they are going to learn and why.Review prior skills and knowledge before teaching new content.Verify that students know what they need to know in order to learn what you will be teaching.Provide step-by-step demonstrations.Model what you are teaching using think alouds.
15 16 Elements of Explicit Instruction Use clear and concise language.Use words that are in the students’ receptive vocabulary.Provide an adequate range of examples and non-examples.Show students when and when not to use a skill or how/how not a concept or rule is used.Provide guided and supported practice.YOU need to guide initial practice so students are successful.As students demonstrate success, you can increase task difficulty.11.Require frequent responses.Need a high level of teacher-student interactions through questioning.
16 16 Elements of Explicit Instruction Monitor student performance closely.Pay careful attention to student responses so you can verify mastery or make adjustments in instruction.Provide immediate corrective feedback.Feedback needs to be delivered immediately after a response.Immediate feedback ensures higher rates of success.Deliver the lesson at a brisk pace.Slower pace = less learning.Help students organize knowledge.Provide structure for knowledge-this relates back to #4.Provide distributed practice (across time)Frequent practice = success
17 Why use Explicit Instruction The research over the past 40+ years says it’s the only method that consistently works for students with disabilities.
18 Research Findings Explicit instruction (ES = 1.68) Mnemonic strategies (ES = 1.47)Learning Strategies (ES = 1.11)Study Aids (ES = 0.94)Spatial or Graphic Organizers (ES = 0.93)Celia Things we think of as effective are not effective unless they are explicitly instructedWe discuss this not because we prefer it – but its what the research says is effective. Its surprising in some cases what the research is telling us about how sped kids learn or don’t learn.
19 Response to Concerns about EI Students need to discover for themselves.Explicit guidance is needed for novice learners; if students do not have adequate background knowledge, they can’t “discover.”Most recent research indicates that students with disabilities can be taught using guided inquiry.
20 Response to Concerns about EI Explicit Instruction is teacher- centered; students need to be in control of the learning.Well-delivered explicit instruction involves many interactions between teachers and students; it is NOT lecture.Constructivism has no research base, particularly for students with disabilities.
21 Remember:Teaching method used should be based on student need (for instructional support and guidance) rather than on personal philosophies of how students should learn.EI provides guidance/support/scaffolds that allow many students to learn skills and strategies that they cannot learn from less guided instruction (e.g., discovery, incidental).
22 Let’s PracticeHandout: Effective Methods for Teaching Students with DisabilitiesWith a partner:Read each scenarioDecide if the teacher is using methods shown by research to be effective for SWDNext to each box, write the numbers from the 16 elements that are illustrated in that scenario.
23 So What Does this Mean?How does SDI fit into EI?
24 Specially Designed Instruction - subset of explicit instruction Sets a learning objectiveFollows an instructional sequenceResults in independent student masteryExplicit instructionDefinition: a research-based method for delivering of how instruction is delivered:Specially Designed Instruction - subset of explicit instructionDEE- I used this slide in the RA training so they are familiar with this
25 Required Components for Specially Designed Required Components for Specially Designed Instruction: All SWD Must be Explicitly Instructed in this way:Set the stage: activate background knowledge Discuss it: introduce the strategy and describe the steps Model it: show how to do it Support it: collaborative practice (large group) Support it: guided practice (small group) Support it: independent practice to promote generalization with continual feedbackCelia There are necessary components to – we will discuss later what that can look like in all classrooms. ** Poster of Scaffolding***There are features of explicit instruction need to keep in mind:planninginstructionassessmentSufficient length of time:use professional judgment and what the data is telling you11
26 Video – anita archer – primary Telling is not the same as teaching and being told is not the same as being taughtExplicit InstructionVideo – anita archer – primaryCelia – You will see in this video that explicit instruction need not be burdensome. Anita Archer accomplishes a significant amount in just 6 minutes:Lauri - Watch the video and jot five examples of explicit instruction and then after the video you can share out with your table.Explicit instruction is the delivery methodology for teaching classroom routines, behavioral expectations, academic content, and skills; order for students with disabilities to be able to comprehend and demonstrate expectations, skills and content (e.g. if a student does not follow classroom routines, have they been explicitly taught, rehearsed and practiced.)We need to be explicit in our instruction with students with disabilities.
27 So, Where Do SDI and EI fit into the Continuum of Services? Let’s review the Part regulations and the continuum of services.
28 Commissioner’s Regulations: Part 200.6 (1) Students with disabilities shall be provided special education in the least restrictive environment, as defined in section 200.1(cc) of this Part. To enable students with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled students to the maximum extent appropriate, specially designed instruction and supplementary services may be provided in the regular class, including, as appropriate, providing related services, resource room programs and special class programs within the general education classroom.
29 The ChallengeProviding quality instruction with positive outcomes in the LRE.Teachers are accountable for student performance.Students need to meet expectations of the Common Core.Suzanne
30 Carousel ActivityBased on our discussions of SDI, explicit instruction, and the Continuum of Services: What should a special education teacher be doing across the Continuum?Celia set up as the carousel lead in
31 Carousel ~ DirectionsPosters are around the room with ICT, CT, RR and SC on them.You will:Count off by fours to identify the groups you will travel in.1’s start at Integrated Co-Teaching2’s start at Consultant Teacher3’s start at Resource Room4’s start at Special ClassWe will rotate clockwise when prompted by the phrase “rotate”LauriThere are two sides to the poster:What is working in your districts?What is stopping teachers from being effective? What are the barriers?
32 Your taskAt each station: 1.) As a classroom teacher, identify the behaviors/activities you should be doing with students with disabilities. 2.) If you have not seen these behaviors in classrooms where you have observed, identify what isn’t working/what are the barriers to success?Suzanne rotates to each poster and summarizes what she sees and offers suggestions for the barriers. This will lead directly into Q and A.
33 The IEP: Centerpiece for Planning MUST use the IEP as the basis for planning:Identify student’s unique cognitive needs that affect his/her learning-leads to identification of learning targetsIdentify pre-requisites (memory, generalization, executive functioning)Identify gaps in student skill levels (ex: self- regulation, processing, meta-cognition, rate of learning, generalization of knowledge and skills learned)
34 Identify Learning Targets When planning SDI, no delivery can occur unless learning targets are identified first.Instruction can’t begin unless a specific target is set.The Common Core can be a guide and that is how we identify gaps.
35 Types of Learning Targets We have to know what we are going to teach before we start teaching.It is important to specifically pinpoint what is to be taught.
36 Types of Learning Targets Adapted from:Mastropieri, M.A., & Scruggs, T.E. (2002). Effective Instruction for Special Education (3rd Ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
37 Target Type #1: Discrimination Learning “Learning that one stimulus is different from another stimulus or set of stimuli.” (p. 32)In the early stages of learning, it is important to pay attention to discrimination learning.Discrimination plays a role in other types of learning that follow.
38 Target Type #1: Discrimination Learning Examples:fork vs. spoonp vs. q (as written letters)/k/ vs. /s/ (as sounds)bread vs. broad vs. breed (as written words)mitosis vs. meiosiswhether a 3 means 30 vs. 300 vs in a specific number
39 Target Type #1: Discrimination Learning Use concrete examples and nonexamples;Use a full range of examples and nonexamples;Should focus on critical attribute(s)Go from gross distractors to fine distractorsExample: Teaching target: Discriminating bMatch to sample:b bb c b eb t h f bb b d h pb d p b q
40 Target Type #2: Factual Learning Items of information to be remembered; may be singleitems, paired associates, or lists.“Efficient factual learning is critical to school success.”(p.34)Memorizing information is a critical first step to learning, it is not the final step.
41 Target Type #2: Factual Learning Examples:vocabulary words and their definitionsfamous people and what they’re known fordates of historical eventsaddition factssight wordsdays of the week
42 Target Type #2: Teaching Facts Use examples only.Focus on knowing the fact by heart.Examples:3 x 5 = x 5 is always 15; I know it by heart. 3 x 5 = 15.the. t-h-e.the. Sometimes the T is capital and sometimes the t is lower case, but t-h-e is always spelled the.The capital of New York is Albany.
43 Target Type #3: Teaching Rules “A rule describes the relationship between a general principle or set of conditions and specific outcomes or behaviors.” (Archer & Hughes, p. 92).Rules:Start with an observable verb ORIf or When
44 Target Type #3:Teaching Rules Archer & Hughes, p. 92:Science: When heat is added, solids, liquids, and gases all expand.Social studies: If the quantity produced increases, then usually the price is reduced.Math: If the last digit is even, then the number is divisible by 2.Reading (decoding): When the letter c is followed by e, I, or y, the letter c has the sound (phoneme) /s/.
45 Target Type #3Teaching Rules Archer & Hughes, p. 92:Writing (spelling): When a noun ends in ch, s, sh, x, or z, and you want to make it plural, add es.Writing (punctuation): If a sentence asks a question, then the end punctuation is a question mark.Writing (grammar): If the subject is singular, then the verb must be singular. If the subject is plural, then the verb must be plural.
46 Target Type #3:Teaching Rules Use examples and nonexamples.When the rule appliesWhen the rule does not apply.Should focus on critical attribute(s).
47 Target Type #3:Teaching Rules Example:When there are three or more words in a series, then separate the words with a comma.Critical attributes:Words in a seriesThree or moreYES:Cameron, Cece, and Carmello ran for the bus.NO:The bus was late because of the snow, and sleet.
48 Target Type #4: Conceptual Learning Abstract ideas of things or groups of things; most concepts have specific examples of the ideas they belong to.“Conceptual learning has occurred when a student can provide a correct response to a novel instance of the concept.” (p. 36)Concepts sometimes have to be taught using features of discrimination learning.
49 Target Type #4: Conceptual Learning Examples:trianglefreedomredoceanadditionplace value (in math)
50 Target Type #4: Teaching Concepts Use concrete examples and nonexamples;Use a full range of examples and nonexamples;Should focus on critical attribute(s)
51 Target Type #4: Teaching Concepts Example:Perpendicular lines: Two lines that intersect to form a right angle.Critical features:Two linesIntersectForm a right angle
52 Target Type #4: Teaching Concepts Perpendicular lines: Two lines that intersect to form a right angle.These lines are perpendicular.There are 2 lines that intersect and form a right angle.These lines are not perpendicular.The lines do intersect but they do notform a right angle.The lines do not intersect.
53 Target Type #5: Procedural Learning: Skills Step-based procedures needed to complete specific tasks that, once mastered, require very limited or no conscious thought; skills become automatic and fluent.Determine the steps in the procedure.Be sure the steps are in sequential order.These are steps that should be automatic once the student learns the task.
54 Target Type #5: Procedural Learning: Skills Examples:adding multiple-digit numbers with and without regroupingwriting your namedrawing a line of a specific lengthbrushing your teethmaking change for a $12.83 purchase given $20.00
55 Target Type #5: Procedural Skills Opening a locker1. Spin the dial at least three times to the right (clockwise), all the way around.This "clears" the lock of any previous numbers.2. Turn the dial to the right and stop at your first number.3. Turn the dial to the left, going past zero and your first number.Then go to your second number.4. Turn the dial to the right and go directly to the last number.5. Pull the lock open and out of the hole, or pull the latch or handle, if there is one.Otherwise, tug on the knob to open the locker.Retrieved 1/22/11:
56 Target Type #6: Procedural Learning: Strategies Step-based procedures needed to complete specific tasks that, once mastered, still require you to pay conscious attention and to do a lot of thinking.Determine the steps in the procedure.Be sure the steps are in sequential order.
57 Target Type #6: Procedural Learning: Strategies Examples:understanding something one’s readingusing mnemonics to remember somethingwriting a paragraphdoing a math word problemconducting an experiment
58 Target Type #6: Learning Strategies SCROL Notetaking StrategySurvey the material to be read.Look at the section headings.Connect the ideas.Write keywords to show how sections are connected.Read the material.Read information under each heading.Pay attention to words in bold or italics.
59 Target Type #6: Learning Strategies SCROL Notetaking Strategy4. Outline the notes.Write down main ideas and supporting details.At least two details under each main idea.Look back.Make sure your outline has all of the information.Add missing information.
60 Target Type #7: Problem Solving and Thinking Skills Finding a solution to a problem when no specific strategy is known; using critical thinking to derive novel ideas or concepts.Refers more to constructing proofs in geometry (Pythagorean theorem) than to strategy-based mathematical problem solving.Solving a “magic square” problemAll sides add to 15 (next slide).
61 Target Type #7: Problem Solving and Thinking Skills
62 Target Type #7: Problem Solving and Thinking Skills Can also be used for less formal tasks, such as finding the simplest solution to:5Above from Mastropieri & Scruggs, p. 37.
63 Let’s Practicelearning to fix a breakfast of toast, cold cereal, and orange juicelearning that red, blue, and yellow are primary colorslearning what the word “osmosis” means
65 Identifying Prerequisites Once we identify learning targets, we have to be sure students have the prerequisite skills to accomplish those targets.
66 Know what they are! New Skill Prerequisite Skill Planning for Instruction: Verifying Prerequisites From: Dr. Charles Hughes SPLED 412 notesKnow what they are!New Skill Prerequisite Skill•Paraphrasing a main •Identify a main ideaIdea•2-digit + w/ regroup. •2-digit w/out regroup.
67 Verifying Prerequisites •Verifying Prerequisites is NOT:Reteaching (unless necessary)Asking “do you remember how?”Asking a few students to perform the skill•Verifying Prerequisites IS:Making sure ALL students can perform the skill.
68 Using Types of Learning to Determine Prerequisites and Decide What to Teach Goal: The student will write compare- contrast essays.Identify tool skills for compare contrast essays:Knowing definitions of compare & contrastIdentifying the difference between different types of essaysComparing and contrasting different items/ideasWriting sentences, paragraphs, essaysCompleting a graphic organizer
69 Using Types of Learning to Decide What to Teach Goal: The student will write compare- contrast essays.Identify student’s strengths and weaknesses, then at what level to teach:discriminationgiven a variety of essays (e.g., descriptive, sequential, cause and effect, and compare and contrast), picking out which are compare and contrast essays
70 Using Types of Learning to Decide What to Teach factremembering the following:“Compare means saying how things are the same. Contrast means saying how things are different.”“You can compare and contrast any two things.”rulewriting essays that apply the following rules:“If you are to compare OR contrast, write 3 paragraphs – one introductory, one detail, and one concluding.”If you are to compare AND contrast, write 4 paragraphs – one introductory, one for similarities, one for differences, and one concluding.”
71 Using Types of Learning to Decide What to Teach conceptcomparing and contrasting more and more seemingly unrelated pairs until they can compare any two things assigned for this purpose. An example of this type of progression would be comparingwhales and dolphinswhales and elephantswhales and snakeswhales and tangerines
72 Using Types of Learning to Decide What to Teach skillcopying into a daily planner a homework assignment to write a compare and contrast essay on topic X for the following Tuesdaystrategycompleting a Venn diagram on an assigned topic (e.g., the Sahara desert and the Australian outback) and then writing a draft of a compare and contrast essay
73 Let’s Practice Calculating area of a circle discrimination fact rule conceptskillstrategy
74 What to look for in Observations: Students with disabilities have access to the curriculum:Students with disabilities are working on content aligned with the content of the work of their grade level peers.
75 What to look for: Introduction of Lesson Introduction of a LessonTeacher explicitly references content of previous lesson.Let’s review….”activating prior knowledgeactive involvement of studentstakes less than 5 minutes (2-3 ideal)
76 What to look for: Introduction of Lesson Video: Review of Multisyllabic Words-6th gradePay attention to the rapid pace; all review is previously known information.How long did it take: discuss with table partner?This is how review should generally be-quick-time needs to be spent teaching the new material, not reviewing the old material.
77 Identifying Prerequisites You are working in a classroom where the teacher is teaching students to write paragraphs, but the students aren’t learning how to write paragraphs. You have been able to get the teacher to recognize that the students need to develop skills that come writing a paragraph.With your table partner, identify at least 3 prerequisites for writing a paragraph.
78 Introduction of Lesson The objective of the lesson is written on the board and referenced by teacher.Teacher provides purpose for content being taught, including “what and why”.Teacher provides purpose for strategies being taught, including “what, why, how and when”.
79 Introduction of Lesson The teacher checks that students with disabilities understand objective accurately.Students with disabilities demonstrate understanding of directions by accurately restating directions and/or completing directions as given by teacher.
80 What to Look for: Active Teaching Teacher uses verbal explanation and visual prompts to explain content or strategy.
81 What to Look for: Active Teaching If teaching a strategy/skill, teacher models the strategy in sequential steps.If teaching a concept/rule/fact/discrimination, teacher models using examples and nonexamples.
82 Examples/Non Examples: Concepts/Vocabulary • Use concrete examples and nonexamplesUse a full rangeNonexamples focus on critical attributes• Nonexamples: Keep noncritical attributes consistent
83 Teaching GREENExamples NonExamples 2” green square 2” blue square 4” green circle 4” purple circle 1” green triangle 1” red triangle
84 Designing Examples and Non-examples. Step 1: Examine the definition and determine the critical attributes or parts of the definition.Glossary Entryforeshadowing. Foreshadowing is the author’s use of clues to hint atwhat might happen later in the story. Writers use foreshadowing tobuild their readers’ expectations and to create suspense.Critical Attributes foreshadowingAuthor’s procedureUse of cluesHints at what might happen later in the story
85 Designing Examples and Non-examples. Your Turn Glossary/Dictionary EntryObtuse angle: An angle that measures greater than 90 degrees and less than 180 degrees.Critical AttributesPerpendicular lines:
86 Designing Examples and Non-examples. Step 2. Design examples in which allattributes are present.foreshadowingAuthor’s procedureUse of cluesHints at what might happen later in the storyEarly in the story about Blue Cloud, the author indicated that Dakota babies are taught not to cry. Later in the story, the baby who was lost in the grass did not cry, making it impossible to locate the baby.Teacher: This is an example of foreshadowing. The author gaveus hints about what might happen later in the story.
87 Designing Examples and Non-examples. Your Turn Step 2. Design examples in which allattributes are present. Don’t forget about wide-range!obtuse angleanglegreater than 90°less than 180°
88 Designing Examples and Non-examples. Step 3. Design non-examples in which some, but notall, critical attributes are missing.foreshadowingAuthor’s procedureUse of cluesHints at what might happen later in the storyEarly in the story about Blue Cloud, the author told about the Dakota tribe moving to a new location.Teacher: This is NOT an example of foreshadowing. The author is telling what is happening, but is not giving hints about what will happen later in the story.
89 Designing Examples and Non-examples. Your Turn Step 3. Design non-examples in which some, but notall, critical attributes are missing. Again, wide-range!obtuse angle:anglegreater than 90°less than 180°
90 Your Turn: Generate Ex. & Nonex Equilateral TriangleEx: Nonex:
91 Examples and NonExamples for Rules (Hughes, C.A., SPLED 412) First, a word about which rules to teach:They should be:Important: To content currently being learned and used in the future.Useful: Does the rule actually work???(Not too many exceptions – “when 2 vowels go walking”)Difficult: For students to remember/understand.
92 Examples and NonExamples: Rules • Examples and nonexamples are used to teach when the rule applies and when it does not.• Thus, focus of rule lesson is twofold:- How to use the rule (procedural)- When to use the rule (conditional)
93 Rules: Examples and Nonexamples Make sure rule is worded accurately.NO: Separate items in a series with commas.YES: When there are 3 or more items in a series, separate them with commas.NO: When a word ends in y and you want to make it plural, change the y to i and add es.YES: When a word ends in consonant-y and you want to make it plural, change the y to i and add es.
94 Rules: Examples and Nonexamples Determine the Critical Attribute(s) of the Rule.Critical Attribute = The condition(s) under which the outcome or behavior occurs. That is, WHEN the rule should be used.Suggestion: Identify the ‘behavior’ first, and then ask yourself “under what conditions does the behavior occur?”
95 Rules: Examples and Nonexamples Determine Critical Attributes Model:When a noun ends in ch, s, sh, x, or z, and you want to make it plural, add es.churches, waltzes, boxes, wishessandwichs, witch’s,Prompt:When a word ends in vowel-consonant + e and youwant to add an ending that begins with a vowel, dropthe e.bake + ing = baking spite + ful = spitefulshine + ing = shining shoe + ing = shoeingtime + ed = timed
96 Rules: Examples and Nonexamples - Determine Critical Attributes • Check: When there are 3 or more items in a series, separate them with a comma.
97 What to Look For: Active Teaching Teacher’s instruction ensures multiple opportunities for participation by students with disabilities, e.g., choral responding, thumbs-up, white board response. (see next two slides)Teacher presents the content in chunks/segments.
98 Multiple Opportunities to Respond: Oral Responses:Choral Responsesneed some kind of signalexamples: p. 137Partner Responsesneed guidelinesyou select partnersassign #s (1, 2)use sentence startersstart your sentence with….Pause Procedureteach/lecture for12-18 minutes, then pause two minutes for partners to compare notes.
99 Multiple Opportunities to Respond Written Responses Response cards & response slates Action Responses Touching/Pointing works well for primary students Acting out/Responding with gestures helpful for vocabulary Hand Signals when choices are possible, use fingers (e.g, 1, 2, or 3)
101 What to Look for: Active Teaching Example: Teacher explicitly teaches required vocabulary.We will refer to the attached handout.
102 Example, then Practice Vocabulary Instruction 2nd grade Extend students’ understanding:Introduce or have students generate synonyms for the new words (with the use of reference materials).Allow students to work in partners.Vocabulary Instruction 2nd gradeWith your table partner:Ones: Teach the word disgustingTwos: Teach the word relieved
103 Analysis of An Active Participation Lesson Handout: Compound Word MeaningsWith your partnerOnes: describe one way the teacher could have engaged students during the “Input” phase of the lesson.Twos: Tell your partner one way you will know you see this during a visit.
104 Active Teaching: We DoActive Teaching (This is moving in to We Do-at this point just repeating is necessary)Students with disabilities engage in structured activities designed to allow to processing; e.g., I-time, think-pair-share, numbered heads, elbow partners, think-jot.Students with disabilities correctly answer questions regarding content/strategy.
105 Active Teaching: We DoActive Teaching (This is moving in to We Do-at this point just repeating is necessary)Students with disabilities are responding to high- order questions; e.g., problem-solving, generalization, evaluative, inferential, application.The teacher uses wait time to enable student with disabilities to process responses to questions/directions.Teacher re-teaches if students’ responses are inaccurate. (we are going to discuss this more in a minute)
106 Guided PracticeAlso called We Do (it’s where the learning occurs in a lesson)This is where the teacher should be spending the bulk of instructional timeTeacher leads student with disabilities through step-by- step practice.Teacher initially uses high level of prompting/cues with students with disabilities. (e.g.,Tell, Guide)Teacher gradually decreases level of prompting/cuing to student with disabilities based on accurate responding. (Ask, Remind, Check)
108 4 Essential delivery skills Require frequent responses.Monitor student performance carefully.Provide immediate affirmative and corrective feedback.Deliver the lesson at a brisk pace.
109 require frequent responses YES:InputQuestionResponse. InputQuestion Response. InputQuestionResponse. Input QuestionResponse.NO:InputInputInputInputInputInput InputInputInputInputInputInput Here is your homework.
110 require frequent responses Oral Responses:Choral Responsesneed some kind of signalexamples: p. 137Partner Responsesneed guidelinesyou select partnersassign #s (1, 2)use sentence startersstart your sentence with….Pause Procedurelecture minutes, then pause two minutes for partners to compare notes.
111 require frequent responses Written Responses Response cards & response slates Action Responses Touching/Pointing works well for primary students Acting out/Responding with gestures helpful for vocabulary Hand Signals when choices are possible, use fingers (e.g, 1, 2, or 3)
112 require frequent responses Alternative Reading Procedures Echo Reading Choral Reading Cloze Reading Whisper Read Partner Read Video examples teaching students to participate; model of participation
113 monitor student performance carefully Must ask yourself:Is the response correct or incorrect?If the response is incorrect, what type of correction procedure should be used?
114 Provide Immediate and Corrective Feedback STUDENTS SHOULD ALWAYS PRACTICE CORRECT RESPONSE. Incorrect response when “fact” requested.1. Model the correctanswer.(I do it.)2. Check understanding.(You do it.)3. Check again.(Student says /cot/ when you requested /cat/.)“This sound is /a/.”“The word is /cat/”“What word?” /cat/“Yes,/cat/”Incorrect response when strategy or rule used.1. Guide student(s) to the correct answer by asking questions on the steps of the strategy or rule. (We do it.)2. Check understanding.3. Check again.(Student spells siting for sitting.)Hint:“This ends with a ______CF:Repeat Hint..” and so we double the final consonant. sitting.”“Show me.”
115 Corrective Feedback “Rules” Provide Corrections:Your job is to provide feedback for “errorless” learning;All new learning will result in errors;Corrections do not result in lowered self-esteem.Provide Immediate Corrections:Do not allow for repetition of error patternsProvide Specific, Informative FeedbackPlanned, specific feedback increases learningThe word family is –ack, pronounced /ack/, so the word is “tack.” Say it, “tack.” Yes, “tack.”
116 Corrective Feedback “Rules” Focus on the Correct Answer Rather than the Incorrect AnswerYou want your students to remember the correct answer, not the incorrect answer.For example, if a student spells baking “bakeing,” you would not say, “You left the e in the word before adding –ing. That’s not how we do it.” You should say, “Remember, we drop the e before adding –ing. It’s b- a-k-i-n-g. Show me. Yes, b-a-k-i-n-g. You dropped the e before adding –ing.”
117 Corrective Feedback “Rules” Utilize Appropriate Tone when Correcting ErrorsEnd Every Correction by Having Students Give the Correct ResponseStudents need the repetition, so you need to make them say/do the correct response.Also need to return to that student later with a similar item so the student has a chance to respond again.
118 monitor student performance carefully Must ask yourself:If the response is correct, what type of affirmation/praise would be appropriate?
119 Provide Immediate and Corrective Feedback Correct and quick responseAcknowledge and move on.“Correct”“Yes, that’s right.”[Then specifically name correct fact/ concept.]“You knew 3 x 5 = 15.Correct but hesitant responseAcknowledge and add brief ‘firm-up explanation’.“Correct. Since this is a telling sentence, we would end the sentence with a period.”
120 Provide immediate and corrective feedback Practice:Page 176Directions: There are two examples in each box (2,3,4). One person is the teacher for the first example in each box, the other person is the teacher for the second example in each box.
121 provide immediate and corrective feedback What adaptations, if any, should be made in the current lesson?should the lesson go forward?should confusing facts, concepts, skills, or strategies be retaught immediately?should additional practice be provided within the lesson?
122 Prompted Practice Two phases: Purposes of prompted/guided practice We doGuided practicePurposes of prompted/guided practicePromote high level of successBuild confidenceVariety of PromptsVerbalVisualPhysical
123 Prompted Practice Some additional considerations: Keep wording consistent with the model.Use direct verbal prompts/statements.Use regrouping in this problem.Use a question mark at the end of an asking sentence.Sometimes you may ask questions to prompt:Why did you change signs before solving the problem?
124 Prompted Practice In general… Some additional considerations: Don’t “go fishing” (i.e., keep asking for an answer)Be businesslike and non-threateningPositiveNeutralNegative
126 Unprompted Practice(You do it) Practice with no prompts (that’s the goal)Close Monitoring“Do one then stop”Need success with one before being given more to do.You will have to prompt immediately if an error is made.
127 INDIVIDUAL ORAL RESPONSES When?To verify individual understandingFollowing group responsesIf the desired response is lengthy or there are different correct wordings
128 PROCEDURE FOR ASKING A QUESTION OF AN INDIVIDUAL STUDENT Ask a question.Give thinking time.Call on a student to share his/her answer.Guide student(s) in discussing the answer.Option: Have students share the answer with a partner – give each other feedback. Then call on a student
129 ELICITING INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES Less desirable practices#1. Calling on volunteers.Guidelines:Call on volunteers when the answer is a product of personal experience.Don’t call on volunteers when the answer is a product of instruction or reading. Instead expect that all students could answer your question.#2. Calling on inattentive students.
130 INDIVIDUAL ORAL RESPONSES, CONT. Volunteers or Non-volunteers?Advantages to non-volunteersVolunteers typically a small subset of the classTeacher likely to get distorted view of student masterySituations in which volunteers are appropriateAnswer based on personal experienceNot all would be expected to have the answerBottom Line: Non-volunteers are preferred as often as possible.
131 TURNS FOR NON-VOLUNTEER INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES Random or ordered?Ordered turnsAll students respondReduces student anxietySaves timeBUT may reduce overall student alertness and teacher attentiveness to other studentsBest practice: vary amount of responding
132 TURNS FOR NON-VOLUNTEER INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES Random turnsAdvantagesAll students alertBEST PRACTICEAsk questionRaise hand, look around, give think timeCall on studentDisadvantagesMay not call on all studentsBEST PRACTICE: Have a plan
133 MONITOR RESPONSES AND ADJUST INSTRUCTION WHY?Close monitoring allows teacher to adjust instructionClose monitoring allows teacher to provide corrective feedbackEspecially important given relatively higher rates of errors for students with learning problems.
134 MONITOR STUDENTS’ RESPONSES Walk around.Look around.Talk around.
135 3 TYPES OF ERRORS Correction Procedure Error Type Careless/Inattentive Repeat question, student repeats correct responseSay answer, student makes correct responsePrompt through step, student makes correct responseError TypeCareless/InattentiveLack of factual knowledgeLack of procedural knowledge
136 FRIENDLY CORRECTIONS: MAKING THE CLASSROOM SAFE Group correctionsPraise correct responseNeutral, non-threatening manner“Errors are a part of learning.”Admit your own errorsEstablish peer response
137 PRAISING/ACKNOWLEDGING CORRECT RESPONSES Praise is usually effective if:Contingent (IF – THEN)Specific when possibleVariedProvided for noteworthy performanceFocused on achievement and effort rather than personality attributesComparing students to themselves rather than to otherPositive, credible, genuineDoes not disrupt ‘flow’You know your students
138 A teacher makes a big difference Best practices MAINTAIN ATTENTIONWhy?Attention challengesA teacher makes a big differenceBest practicesElicit more responsesMove closer (proximity control)Increase paceEye contactModel alertness
139 ENSURE ALL STUDENTS AN EQUAL CHANCE TO LEARN Typical practices to avoidCall on higher achieving studentsResult Lower achieving students make fewer responsesMore eye contact for higher studentsResult Lower students less attentiveMore think time for higher studentsResult Maintain perception of higher and lower performing
140 EQUAL CHANCE BEST PRACTICES ALL students should have an equal number of opportunities to respondALL students should receive eye contact and smilesALL students should get sufficient think time
141 CRITICAL PRESENTATION/DELIVERY SKILLS--SUMMARY Elicit frequent responsesMonitor student responses and adjust instructionMaintain an appropriate paceMaintain student attentionEnsure all students an equal chance to learn
142 Verbal Retell During the video, pay attention to the following: 1.) Verbal Retell Video-1st grade2.) Summary Paragraph Frame Video-1st gradeDuring the video, pay attention to the following:1.) What cues does Anita give when she Tells?2.) What cues does Anita give when she Asks?3.) What cues does Anita give when she Reminds?
143 Guided PracticeConcepts/Vocabulary/Rules: Guide them->Check understandingConcepts/Vocabulary: Guide Themasks students to state the definition.presents sentences in which students have to fill in the blank OR asks relevant yes/no questionsRules: Guide Themasks students to state the rule.prompts with, “Should we …?” AND “Does_____ make sense?”
144 Guided PracticeConcepts/Vocabulary/Rules: Guide them->Check understandingConcepts/Vocabulary/Rules: Check Understandinguses a system for all students to name definitions/rule.uses a system for all students to give and get feedback on their responses.Generally will use partner responses in this phase.
145 Let’s Practice Handout: Compound Words With your partner: Ones: Review the teacher’s use of questioning during We Do. Is it effective?Twos: Tell your partner one way the teacher could have elicited responses during the questioning/response phase.Ones: Tell your partner one way secondary teachers can facilitate responding in the classroom and describe what it looks like.Twos: Tell your partner one way elementary teachers can facilitate responding in the classroom and describe what it looks like.
146 Guided Practice-Corrective Feedback Teacher gives immediate feedback with error correction to students with disabilities. [aka corrective feedback]Teacher re-teaches if students’ responses are inaccurate. [“reteaching” should occur through the natural course of CF]
147 Guided Practice-Corrective Feedback Students with disabilities work in groups of varying sizes; e.g., individual, pairs, small group, whole group.Students with disabilities are monitoring and self-correcting work. [how to do this MUST be explicitly taught]
148 Error Correction: Recognizing the 3 TYPES OF ERRORS Correction ProcedureRepeat question, student repeats correct responseSay answer, student makes correct responsePrompt through step, student makes correct responseError TypeCareless/InattentiveLack of factual knowledgeLack of procedural knowledge
149 During Corrective Feedback: Teacher must circulate.While the ultimate goal is for students to respond without prompts, students who still need assistance get prompting from the teacher.You should NOT hear:How many times have we done this?Why can’t you remember this?You should know this by now.Just think about it.
150 Let’s Practice Spelling & Dictation Video While you are watching: Look for following procedures that were used to set students up for success on the sentence dictation.Dictation of sentencesThe teacher said the entire sentence and had students repeat the sentence.The teacher then dictated the first part of the sentence and gave students time to write the first part.As the students wrote, the teacher moved around the classroom and monitored student work.
151 Let’s Practice Feedback The teacher gave feedback on each word. Students were awarded points for correct spelling, capitalization, and punctuation. The points were designed to make the students more interested in the task and more careful.Notice other important instructional procedures.Monitoring - The teacher constantly moved around the room monitoring students’ work.
152 Practice Handout: Compound Words With your partner: Ones: Review the teacher’s corrective feedback during We Do. Was it effective?Twos: Tell your partner one way the teacher could have given effective corrective feedback during this lesson.Ones: Tell your partner what corrective feedback looks like in an elementary classroom.Twos: Tell your partner what corrective feedback looks like in a secondary classroom.
153 Independent Practice (You Do) Work relates to objective on board.Students with disabilities are able to accurately complete tasks without prompts.Teacher moves through classroom and checks in with every student with disabilities.Teacher gives timely feedback to students with disabilities.Teacher gives specific feedback to students with disabilities.
154 Independent Practice (You Do) Teacher elicits alternatives from students with disabilities when responses are incorrect.(this only comes after modeling of how to think).When students with disabilities’ responses are inaccurate, staff re-teaches the concept/strategy individually or in small groups.Students with disabilities are monitoring and self-correcting work. [must be explicitly taught.]Students with disabilities complete work. [must be reinforced]
155 Independent Practice (You Do) The same principles of corrective feedback still apply.Teacher must circulate.While the ultimate goal is for students to respond without prompts, students who still need assistance get prompting from the teacher.You should NOT hear:How many times have we done this?Why can’t you remember this?You should know this by now.Just think about it.
156 Independent Practice (You Do) Specific comments about:Teacher elicits alternatives from students with disabilities when responses are incorrect.(this only comes after modeling of how to think).Students need corrective feedback so they only hear the correct answers.Fishing for responses leads to incorrect understandings
157 Independent Practice (You Do) When students with disabilities’ responses are inaccurate, staff re-teaches the concept/strategy individually or in small groups.“re-teaching” means continued prompting with corrective feedback.If that doesn’t work, teacher needs to go back and do some more We Do practices with student(s).
158 ClosureThe objective of the work is restated by teacher either verbally or visually.Teacher conducts a short formative assessment of students’ with disabilities level of understanding; e.g. exit cards, collects independent work, self-check or peer check of work.Teacher explicitly connects prior and upcoming lessons.