# TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION Use the tab key, space bar, arrow keys, or page up/down to move through the slides. [Go to “Slide Show” pulldown.

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TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION Use the tab key, space bar, arrow keys, or page up/down to move through the slides. [Go to “Slide Show” pulldown menu and click on “Play from Start.”] This presentation should be viewed in “Slide Show” view to display properly. These slides are optimized for PowerPoint versions 12 (2007/2008) and 14 (2010/2011). If viewed in earlier versions of PowerPoint, some slides may not display properly.

INFERENCES Chapter 6

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences are ideas that are not stated directly. Conclusions SeeHearRead They are conclusions we draw based on things we see, hear, and read.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Which inference is most logically based on the information suggested by this cartoon? A. The dog requires more than one leash to keep it securely tied to the parking meter. B. The dog has eaten the other dogs tied up at the parking meter.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences A. The dog requires more than one leash to keep it securely tied to the parking meter. B. The dog has eaten the other dogs tied up at the parking meter. Three leashes are in the mouth of this big, hostile-looking dog. 3 This is a logical inference.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences A. The dog requires more than one leash to keep it securely tied to the parking meter. B. The dog has eaten the other dogs tied up at the parking meter. Three other leashes are in the mouth of this big, hostile-looking dog. This is a logical inference. 3 7 The owner has used only one leash to tie the dog to the parking meter. The other leashes are in the dog’s mouth. This is not a logical inference.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences C. The dog is ordinarily a friendly dog. D. The dog is waiting for its owner to return. Which inference is most logically based on the information suggested by this cartoon?

CHAPTER 6 Inferences C. The dog is ordinarily a friendly dog. D. The dog is waiting for its owner to return. It is a reasonable inference that the owner who tied up the dog will return—and will be in for a surprise! 3

CHAPTER 6 Inferences C. The dog is ordinarily a friendly dog. D. The dog is waiting for its owner to return. It may or may not ordinarily be a friendly dog, but it doesn’t look friendly here, and it obviously has not been friendly to other dogs. It is a reasonable inference that the owner who tied up the dog will return—and will be in for a surprise! 7 3

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Discovering the ideas in writing that are not stated directly is called Making inferences Drawing conclusions or

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading In reading, we make logical leaps from information stated directly to ideas that are not stated directly. Information Stated Directly Ideas Not Stated Directly

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading To make inferences, we use all the clues provided by the writer, our own experience, and logic. Logic Clues Provided Inference Experience

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading You have already practiced making inferences in the chapter on implied main ideas.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading There we made an inference when we figured out that the implied point of this cartoon is that the newlyweds’ marriage has broken down, just like their car.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading In the chapter on implied main ideas, you used the evidence in selections to figure out main ideas that were implied rather than stated directly.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Inferences in Short Passages

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Mark Twain said: “When I was a boy of 14, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be 21, I was astonished at how much the old man had learned in seven years.” Read this passage and think about the inferences Twain makes. / Inferences in Short Passages

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Mark Twain said: “When I was a boy of 14, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be 21, I was astonished at how much the old man had learned in seven years.” Which inference is logically based on the information provided? B. Even old people are capable of learning a great deal. A. Teenagers tend to think they know it all and that adults do not. / Inferences in Short Passages

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Mark Twain said: “When I was a boy of 14, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be 21, I was astonished at how much the old man had learned in seven years.” B. Even old people are capable of learning a great deal. A. Teenagers tend to think they know it all and that adults do not. Experience tells us that teenagers often think they know more than their parents’ generation. Twain’s observation is a humorous statement of this truth. 3 / Inferences in Short Passages

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Mark Twain said: “When I was a boy of 14, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be 21, I was astonished at how much the old man had learned in seven years.” B. Even old people are capable of learning a great deal. A. Teenagers tend to think they know it all and that adults do not. Twain was 14 when he thought his father was ignorant. At 21 he is astonished at the “old man’s” learning. These are clues that it is Twain who has changed, not his father. But statement B says the opposite—that it was the father who changed. Therefore, this is not a logical inference. 7 Which inference is logically based on the information provided? / Inferences in Short Passages 3

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Inferences in Paragraphs

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Suppose that you have a ticket to fly to some exotic destination. There will be 200 passengers plus crew on board your plane. But on the way to the airport, the radio program you are listening to is interrupted by an announcement that five U.S. jets will be hijacked that day. All will crash—and all passengers and crew will die. There is no doubt that five planes will go down, that 1,000 terrified passengers and crew will plunge to their deaths. In spite of the threat, the airlines have decided to stay open for business. Do you still fly? After all, the chances are good that yours will not be one of the five planes. My best guess is that you turn around and go home, that U.S. airports will be eerily silent that day. Nicotine kills about 400,000 Americans each year. This is the equivalent of five fully loaded, 200-passenger jets crashing each and every day—leaving no survivors. Who in their right mind would take the risk that their plane will not be among those that crashed? Yet that is the risk that smokers take. Read this passage and think about the inferences it suggests. / Inferences in Paragraphs

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Suppose that you have a ticket to fly to some exotic destination. There will be 200 passengers plus crew on board your plane. But on the way to the airport, the radio program you are listening to is interrupted by an announcement that five U.S. jets will be hijacked that day. All will crash—and all passengers and crew will die. There is no doubt that five planes will go down, that 1,000 terrified passengers and crew will plunge to their deaths. In spite of the threat, the airlines have decided to stay open for business. Do you still fly? After all, the chances are good that yours will not be one of the five planes. My best guess is that you turn around and go home, that U.S. airports will be eerily silent that day. Nicotine kills about 400,000 Americans each year. This is the equivalent of five fully loaded, 200-passenger jets crashing each and every day—leaving no survivors. Who in their right mind would take the risk that their plane will not be among those that crashed? Yet that is the risk that smokers take. Which inference is logically based on the information provided? B. The author implies that chances are good that fewer Americans will smoke in the future. A. The author implies that many Americans don’t like to think about the harmful effects of smoking. / Inferences in Paragraphs

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Suppose that you have a ticket to fly to some exotic destination. There will be 200 passengers plus crew on board your plane. But on the way to the airport, the radio program you are listening to is interrupted by an announcement that five U.S. jets will be hijacked that day. All will crash—and all passengers and crew will die. There is no doubt that five planes will go down, that 1,000 terrified passengers and crew will plunge to their deaths. In spite of the threat, the airlines have decided to stay open for business. Do you still fly? After all, the chances are good that yours will not be one of the five planes. My best guess is that you turn around and go home, that U.S. airports will be eerily silent that day. Nicotine kills about 400,000 Americans each year. This is the equivalent of five fully loaded, 200-passenger jets crashing each and every day—leaving no survivors. Who in their right mind would take the risk that their plane will not be among those that crashed? Yet that is the risk that smokers take. B. The author implies that chances are good that fewer Americans will smoke in the future. A. The author implies that many Americans don’t like to think about the harmful effects of smoking. The author presents statistics showing the harmful effects of smoking. / Inferences in Paragraphs

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Suppose that you have a ticket to fly to some exotic destination. There will be 200 passengers plus crew on board your plane. But on the way to the airport, the radio program you are listening to is interrupted by an announcement that five U.S. jets will be hijacked that day. All will crash—and all passengers and crew will die. There is no doubt that five planes will go down, that 1,000 terrified passengers and crew will plunge to their deaths. In spite of the threat, the airlines have decided to stay open for business. Do you still fly? After all, the chances are good that yours will not be one of the five planes. My best guess is that you turn around and go home, that U.S. airports will be eerily silent that day. Nicotine kills about 400,000 Americans each year. This is the equivalent of five fully loaded, 200-passenger jets crashing each and every day—leaving no survivors. Who in their right mind would take the risk that their plane will not be among those that crashed? Yet that is the risk that smokers take. B. The author implies that chances are good that fewer Americans will smoke in the future. A. The author implies that many Americans don’t like to think about the harmful effects of smoking. Life experience tells us that few people like to think about the negative consequences of their behavior. / Inferences in Paragraphs

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Suppose that you have a ticket to fly to some exotic destination. There will be 200 passengers plus crew on board your plane. But on the way to the airport, the radio program you are listening to is interrupted by an announcement that five U.S. jets will be hijacked that day. All will crash—and all passengers and crew will die. There is no doubt that five planes will go down, that 1,000 terrified passengers and crew will plunge to their deaths. In spite of the threat, the airlines have decided to stay open for business. Do you still fly? After all, the chances are good that yours will not be one of the five planes. My best guess is that you turn around and go home, that U.S. airports will be eerily silent that day. Nicotine kills about 400,000 Americans each year. This is the equivalent of five fully loaded, 200-passenger jets crashing each and every day—leaving no survivors. Who in their right mind would take the risk that their plane will not be among those that crashed? Yet that is the risk that smokers take. B. The author implies that chances are good that fewer Americans will smoke in the future. A. The author implies that many Americans don’t like to think about the harmful effects of smoking. This is a logical inference. 3 / Inferences in Paragraphs

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Suppose that you have a ticket to fly to some exotic destination. There will be 200 passengers plus crew on board your plane. But on the way to the airport, the radio program you are listening to is interrupted by an announcement that five U.S. jets will be hijacked that day. All will crash—and all passengers and crew will die. There is no doubt that five planes will go down, that 1,000 terrified passengers and crew will plunge to their deaths. In spite of the threat, the airlines have decided to stay open for business. Do you still fly? After all, the chances are good that yours will not be one of the five planes. My best guess is that you turn around and go home, that U.S. airports will be eerily silent that day. Nicotine kills about 400,000 Americans each year. This is the equivalent of five fully loaded, 200-passenger jets crashing each and every day—leaving no survivors. Who in their right mind would take the risk that their plane will not be among those that crashed? Yet that is the risk that smokers take. B. The author implies that chances are good that fewer Americans will smoke in the future. A. The author implies that many Americans don’t like to think about the harmful effects of smoking. There is nothing in the passage to indicate that fewer Americans will smoke in the future. This is not a logical inference. 7 / Inferences in Paragraphs 3

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading have decided to stay open for business. Do you still fly? After all, the chances are good that yours will not be one of the five planes. My best guess is that you turn around and go home, that U.S. airports will be eerily silent that day. Nicotine kills about 400,000 Americans each year. This is the equivalent of five fully loaded, 200-passenger jets crashing each and every day—leaving no survivors. Who in their right mind would take the risk that their plane will not be among those that crashed? Yet that is the risk that smokers take. For instance, in the passage about the risks of smoking, we are told that most Americans would refuse to fly if they knew that jets were to be hijacked. 1 Never lose sight of the available information. Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading For instance, in the passage about the risks of smoking, we are told that most Americans would refuse to fly if they knew that jets were to be hijacked. But that many Americans continue to risk their lives despite the known dangers of smoking. 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading have decided to stay open for business. Do you still fly? After all, the chances are good that yours will not be one of the five planes. My best guess is that you turn around and go home, that U.S. airports will be eerily silent that day. Nicotine kills about 400,000 Americans each year. This is the equivalent of five fully loaded, 200-passenger jets crashing each and every day—leaving no survivors. Who in their right mind would take the risk that their plane will not be among those that crashed? Yet that is the risk that smokers take.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading have decided to stay open for business. Do you still fly? After all, the chances are good that yours will not be one of the five planes. My best guess is that you turn around and go home, that U.S. airports will be eerily silent that day. Nicotine kills about 400,000 Americans each year. This is the equivalent of five fully loaded, 200-passenger jets crashing each and every day—leaving no survivors. Who in their right mind would take the risk that their plane will not be among those that crashed? Yet that is the risk that smokers take. On the basis of those facts, we would not conclude that fewer Americans will smoke in the future. 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading 1 Never lose sight of the available information. Background Information and Experience Available Information Inference 2 Use your background information and experience to help you in making inferences. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Experience People don’t like to dwell on the negative consequences of their behavior. For instance, life experience tells us that people don’t like to dwell on the negative consequences of their behavior. 2 Use your background information and experience to help you in making inferences. 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading Experience People don’t like to dwell on the negative consequences of their behavior. Available Information be silent that day. Nicotine kills about 400,000 Americans each year. This is the The increased risk of death is a negative consequence of choosing to smoke. 2 Use your background information and experience to help you in making inferences. 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading American smokers don’t like to think about the harmful effects of smoking. Inference Experience People don’t like to dwell on the negative consequences of their behavior. Available Information be silent that day. Nicotine kills about 400,000 Americans each year. This is the 2 Use your background information and experience to help you in making inferences. 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading

Instead, consider all of the facts of a case and all the possible explanations. CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Reading 3 Consider the alternatives. Don’t simply accept the first inference that comes to mind. 2 Use your background information and experience to help you in making inferences. 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Literature Inferences are very important in reading literature. Writers of factual material usually state directly much of what they mean Creative writers, however, often provide verbal pictures that show what they mean. Factual Material Point directly stated Creative Material Point must be inferred

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Literature A nonfiction writer might write: It would be really hard to feel the pain that others feel. It is better not to know. Compare the nonfiction version with this passage from George Eliot’s novel Middlemarch: If we had a keen vision and feeling of all ordinary human life, it would be like hearing the grass grow and the squirrel’s heart beat, and we should die of that roar which lies on the other side of silence. As it is, we walk about well wadded with stupidity.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Literature Eliot uses vivid images. These vivid images help us infer a profound human truth—that behind the surface we often carry around a great deal of pain. If we had a keen vision and feeling of all ordinary human life, it would be like hearing the grass grow and the squirrel’s heart beat, and we should die of that roar which lies on the other side of silence. As it is, we walk about well wadded with stupidity. We protect ourselves with ignorance and stupidity so that we will not die from experiencing the pain of others.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences A Note on Figures of Speech Creative writers often use comparisons known as figures of speech to imply their meanings. The two most common figures of speech are similes and metaphors. Inferences in Literature

CHAPTER 6 Inferences / Figures of Speech Simile A simile is a comparison introduced with like, as, or as if. Snoopy writes about a pair of beautiful eyes that they are “like two supper dishes”! Can you identify the simile in this cartoon? Inferences in Literature

CHAPTER 6 Inferences If we had a keen vision and feeling of all ordinary human life, it would be like hearing the grass grow and the squirrel’s heart beat…. Simile In the quotation from Middlemarch, George Eliot uses two similes. / Figures of Speech Inferences in Literature

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Metaphor A metaphor is an implied comparison, with like, as, or as if omitted. The 23rd Psalm in the Bible is the source of some of the world’s best-known metaphors, including: The comparison suggests that God is like a shepherd who looks after his sheep. The Lord is my shepherd. / Figures of Speech Inferences in Literature

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Metaphor Here are some other metaphors: The movie was a bomb. Her disapproval was an ice pick to my heart. To people searching for information, the Internet is a vast candy store of facts. / Figures of Speech Inferences in Literature

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs At the beginning of this presentation, you made inferences about a picture—this cartoon of the dog: Other “pictures” that require inferences are tables and graphs.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs Tables and graphs combine words with visual representations. To infer the ideas presented in tables and graphs, you must consider all the information presented.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs Steps in Reading a Table or Graph Following a few simple steps will help you find and make sense of the information in a table or graph.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs / Steps in Reading a Table or Graph

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs 1Read the title. It will tell you what the table or graph is showing in general. / Steps in Reading a Table or Graph

1Read the title. CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs / Steps in Reading a Table or Graph What is the title of this graph?

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs 2Check the source. / Steps in Reading a Table or Graph At the bottom of a table or graph, you will usually find the source of the information, an indication of the reliability of its material.

2Check the source. CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs / Steps in Reading a Table or Graph What is the source of this graph?

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs 3Read any labels or captions at the top, the side, or underneath. / Steps in Reading a Table or Graph These tell exactly what each column, line, bar, number, or other item represents.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs / Steps in Reading a Table or Graph This graph has five labels. Label 1 Label 3 Label 2 Label 4 Label 5 3Read any labels or captions at the top, the side, or underneath.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs Based on the information in the graph, which statement is a logical inference? B. Our REM (rapid eye movement) sleep occurs at about the same time as our deepest sleep. A. Our deepest sleep occurs early in the sleep cycle.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs A. Our deepest sleep occurs early in the sleep cycle. The graph shows that we are in our deepest sleep in the first three hours or so. B. Our REM (rapid eye movement) sleep occurs at about the same time as our deepest sleep. Statement A is a logical inference. 3

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs A. Our deepest sleep occurs early in the sleep cycle. Our REM sleep occurs in the second part of our sleep cycle, but our deepest sleep occurs in the first part. Statement B is not a logical inference. 3 B. Our REM (rapid eye movement) sleep occurs at about the same time as our deepest sleep. 7

CHAPTER 6 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs Our deepest sleep occurs early in the sleep cycle. Again, we have made a leap from information presented directly to an idea that is not presented directly.

CHAPTER 6 Inferences

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