2InferencesAn inference or conclusion is an idea that is suggested by the facts or details in a passage or picture.A valid inference is a logical conclusion based on evidence.What are the emotions shown in this picture?
3Thinking Through Inferences A common pitfall is to rely too much on opinions and bias.An effective reader’s goal is to find out what the author is saying, stating, or implying.An invalid conclusion is a false inference that is not based on the details, or facts in the text or on reasonable thinking.
4The VALID Approach to Inferences Step 1: Verify and value the facts.Step 2: Assess prior knowledge.Step 3: Learn from the text.Step 4: Investigate for bias.Step 5: Detect contradictions.
5Step 1: Verify and Value the Facts. Korea has long been known as the “Eastern Land of Courtesy.” When happy, a Korean simply smiles or gently touches the one who brings the happiness. When angry, a Korean simply stares directly at the person, and that person’s humble smile is a powerful apology.What are the valid inferences?Koreans are quiet and reserved people.Koreans show their emotions.Koreans are afraid of hurting the feelings of other people.
6Step 1: Verify and Value the Facts. Korea has long been known as the “Eastern Land of Courtesy.” When happy, a Korean simply smiles or gently touches the one who brings the happiness. When angry, a Korean simply stares directly at the person, and that person’s humble smile is a powerful apology.What are the valid inferences?Koreans are quiet and reserved people.Koreans show their emotions.Koreans are afraid of hurting the feelings of other people.
7Step 1: Verify and Value the Facts. What can be inferred from the picture?The baseball player feels angry.The baseball player feels triumphant.The baseball player feels defeated.
8Step 2: Assess Prior Knowledge. What you already know and have experienced can help make accurate inferences.“I forgot to make a back-up copy of my brain, so everything I learned last semester was lost.” What is being compared?Compared to a computerCompared to a friendCompared to what he knows
9Step 3: Learn from the Text. A valid inference is always based on what is stated or implied by the details in the text.Context clues can unlock the meaning of an author’s use of vocabulary.
10Inferences & Context Clues Nikki is not her usual docile self when she is playing basketball; she has more fouls called on her for unnecessary roughness than any of her teammates. “Docile” means:A. boldB. meekC. brave
11Step 4: Investigate for Bias. To make a valid inference, we must investigate our response to information for bias.Our bias can shape our reading of the author’s meaning.Note biased words and replace them with factual details as you form your conclusions.
12Step 5: Detect Contradictions. The effective reader hunts for the most reasonable explanation for something.The best way to do this is to consider other explanations that could logically contradict your first impression.In the following list of behaviors, how many explanations for them can you think of?Slurred wordsPoor balanceSlow movementFatigue or tiredness
13Inferences in Creative Expression: Literary Devices Connotation of WordsThe emotional meaning of words“My home is for sale.”
14Inferences in Creative Expression: Literary Devices MetaphorA direct comparison“Lies are sinkholes.”PersonificationGiving human traits to things that are not human“The sun woke slowly.”
15Inferences in Creative Expression: Literary Devices SimileAn indirect comparison“Lies are like sticky webs.”SymbolSomething that stands for or suggests something else“A skull and crossbones is a symbol for poison and death.”
16Inferences in Literature Words are used to create mental pictures.“Gene’s skin was pale and hot to the touch; he squeezed his eyes tight against the throbbing in his head, and as he lifted his fingers to press on his temple, his stomach lurched with nausea.”The inference is that Gene is sick.
17Inferences and Visual Aids Pictures, photos, cartoons, and graphs imply ideas in textbooks. What do these imply?
18Chapter ReviewAn inference or conclusion is an idea that is suggested by the facts or details in a passage.An author suggests or implies an idea.The five steps for making sound inferences are:Verify and value the facts.Learn from the text.Investigate for bias.Detect contradictions.
19Practice Complete the following: Chapter Review Applications Review TestsMastery TestsRemember to complete your scorecard for the Review Tests in this chapter.