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7 Inferences. CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences are ideas that are not stated directly. Conclusions SeeHearRead They are conclusions we draw based on things.

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Presentation on theme: "7 Inferences. CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences are ideas that are not stated directly. Conclusions SeeHearRead They are conclusions we draw based on things."— Presentation transcript:

1 7 Inferences

2 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences are ideas that are not stated directly. Conclusions SeeHearRead They are conclusions we draw based on things we see, hear, and read.

3 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Which inference is most logically based on the information suggested by this cartoon? A. The couple is not likely to have a good dining experience at the restaurant. B. The couple will never eat at the restaurant. REAL LIFE ADVENTURES © 2006 GarLanco. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL UCLICK. All rights reserved.

4 CHAPTER 7 Inferences A. The couple is not likely to have a good dining experience at the restaurant. B. The couple will never eat at the restaurant. REAL LIFE ADVENTURES © 2006 GarLanco. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL UCLICK. All rights reserved. The “help wanted” sign indicates that the restaurant is seriously understaffed.

5 CHAPTER 7 Inferences A. The couple is not likely to have a good dining experience at the restaurant. REAL LIFE ADVENTURES © 2006 GarLanco. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL UCLICK. All rights reserved. It would be logical, then, to infer that the restaurant cannot provide patrons with a good dining experience. This is a logical inference. B. The couple will never eat at the restaurant.

6 CHAPTER 7 Inferences A. The couple is not likely to have a good dining experience at the restaurant. REAL LIFE ADVENTURES © 2006 GarLanco. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL UCLICK. All rights reserved. B. The couple will never eat at the restaurant. The man’s comment that “this isn’t the best time” suggests that he may be willing to try the restaurant once it has solved its staffing problems.

7 CHAPTER 7 Inferences A. The couple is not likely to have a good dining experience at the restaurant. REAL LIFE ADVENTURES © 2006 GarLanco. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL UCLICK. All rights reserved. B. The couple will never eat at the restaurant. Also, experience suggests that it is common for restaurants to change ownership and/or management. This is not a logical inference.

8 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Which inference is most logically based on the information suggested by this cartoon? C. The restaurant was recently closed for health violations. D. Whoever is running the restaurant is not doing a good job. REAL LIFE ADVENTURES © 2006 GarLanco. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL UCLICK. All rights reserved.

9 CHAPTER 7 Inferences C. The restaurant was recently closed for health violations. D. Whoever is running the restaurant is not doing a good job. REAL LIFE ADVENTURES © 2006 GarLanco. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL UCLICK. All rights reserved. Experience tells us that good managers are able to hire and retain qualified employees. The “help wanted” sign suggests quite the opposite—that a number of employees have recently quit or been fired.

10 CHAPTER 7 Inferences C. The restaurant was recently closed for health violations. D. Whoever is running the restaurant is not doing a good job. REAL LIFE ADVENTURES © 2006 GarLanco. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL UCLICK. All rights reserved. The lack of staff, in turn, has caused the couple to decide against dining there. Clearly, this is no way to run a business! This is a logical inference.

11 CHAPTER 7 Inferences D. Whoever is running the restaurant is not doing a good job. REAL LIFE ADVENTURES © 2006 GarLanco. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL UCLICK. All rights reserved. C. The restaurant was recently closed for health violations. Nothing in the cartoon suggests that the restaurant was recently closed for health violations. This is not a logical inference.

12 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Discovering the ideas that are not stated directly in writing is called Making inferences Drawing conclusions or

13 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading In reading, we make logical leaps from information stated directly to ideas that are not stated directly. Information Stated Directly Ideas Not Stated Directly Inferences in Reading

14 CHAPTER 7 Inferences To make inferences, we use all the clues provided by the writer, our own experience, and logic. Logic Clues Provided Inference Experience Inferences in Reading

15 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Many of us have ambivalent feelings about our politicians, admiring them but also distrusting them. Below is a sentence you saw in the chapter “Vocabulary in Context.” That sentence does not tell us the meaning of ambivalent, but it does suggest that ambivalent involves both positive and negative feelings. Thus you can infer from this sentence that ambivalent feelings probably means “mixed feelings,” and you’d be correct. Inferences in Reading

16 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading Read this passage and think about the inferences in it. A sociology professor wrote on the board, “A woman without her man is nothing” and, with a smile, asked students to punctuate the sentence correctly. The men all wrote, “A woman, without her man, is nothing.” However, the women wrote, “A woman: Without her, man is nothing.”

17 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A sociology professor wrote on the board, “A woman without her man is nothing” and, with a smile, asked students to punctuate the sentence correctly. The men all wrote, “A woman, without her man, is nothing.” However, the women wrote, “A woman: Without her, man is nothing.” Which inference is logically based on the information provided? B. The professor knew there was more than one way to punctuate the words correctly. A. The professor did not believe students could punctuate the words correctly.

18 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A sociology professor wrote on the board, “A woman without her man is nothing” and, with a smile, asked students to punctuate the sentence correctly. The men all wrote, “A woman, without her man, is nothing.” However, the women wrote, “A woman: Without her, man is nothing.” B. The professor knew there was more than one way to punctuate the words correctly. A. The professor did not believe students could punctuate the words correctly. Since the professor chose the particular sentence and smiled while writing the words, we can conclude that the professor was aware of more than one punctuation possibility. Therefore, this is a logical inference.

19 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A sociology professor wrote on the board, “A woman without her man is nothing” and, with a smile, asked students to punctuate the sentence correctly. The men all wrote, “A woman, without her man, is nothing.” However, the women wrote, “A woman: Without her, man is nothing.” B. The professor knew there was more than one way to punctuate the words correctly. A. The professor did not believe students could punctuate the words correctly. Nothing in the passage implies that the professor doubted students’ ability to punctuate the words correctly. This is not a logical inference.

20 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A sociology professor wrote on the board, “A woman without her man is nothing” and, with a smile, asked students to punctuate the sentence correctly. The men all wrote, “A woman, without her man, is nothing.” However, the women wrote, “A woman: Without her, man is nothing.” Which inference is logically based on the information provided? D. Gender differences caused students to read and punctuate the professor’s words differently. C. The professor is not a good teacher.

21 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A sociology professor wrote on the board, “A woman without her man is nothing” and, with a smile, asked students to punctuate the sentence correctly. The men all wrote, “A woman, without her man, is nothing.” However, the women wrote, “A woman: Without her, man is nothing.” D. Gender differences caused students to read and punctuate the professor’s words differently. C. The professor is not a good teacher. Male and female students had very different responses to the sentence. Gender was the only apparent difference among the students, so we can conclude that it caused the different responses. This is a logical inference.

22 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A sociology professor wrote on the board, “A woman without her man is nothing” and, with a smile, asked students to punctuate the sentence correctly. The men all wrote, “A woman, without her man, is nothing.” However, the women wrote, “A woman: Without her, man is nothing.” D. Gender differences caused students to read and punctuate the professor’s words differently. C. The professor is not a good teacher. There is no suggestion in the passage that the professor is a poor teacher. In fact, the professor has chosen a dramatic way to suggest that each sex sees the world from its own point of view.

23 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading Now read this passage and consider the inferences. A famous psychology experiment conducted by Dr. John B. Watson demonstrates that people, like animals, can be conditioned—trained to respond in a particular way to certain stimulations. Watson gave an eleven-month-old baby named Albert a soft, furry white rat. Each time Albert tried to stroke the rat, Dr. Watson hit a metal bar with a hammer. Before long, Albert was afraid not only of white rats but also of white rabbits, white dogs, and white fur coats. He even screamed at the sight of a Santa Claus mask.

24 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A famous psychology experiment conducted by Dr. John B. Watson demonstrates that people, like animals, can be conditioned—trained to respond in a particular way to certain stimulations. Watson gave an eleven-month-old baby named Albert a soft, furry white rat. Each time Albert tried to stroke the rat, Dr. Watson hit a metal bar with a hammer. Before long, Albert was afraid not only of white rats but also of white rabbits, white dogs, and white fur coats. He even screamed at the sight of a Santa Claus mask. Which inference is logically based on the information provided? B. Before the experiment, Albert was not afraid of white rats. A. Dr. Watson did not like small children.

25 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A famous psychology experiment conducted by Dr. John B. Watson demonstrates that people, like animals, can be conditioned—trained to respond in a particular way to certain stimulations. Watson gave an eleven-month-old baby named Albert a soft, furry white rat. Each time Albert tried to stroke the rat, Dr. Watson hit a metal bar with a hammer. Before long, Albert was afraid not only of white rats but also of white rabbits, white dogs, and white fur coats. He even screamed at the sight of a Santa Claus mask. B. Before the experiment, Albert was not afraid of white rats. A. Dr. Watson did not like small children. Because Albert tried to pet the rat, it is fair to assume that he wasn’t frightened of the animal. This is a logical inference.

26 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A famous psychology experiment conducted by Dr. John B. Watson demonstrates that people, like animals, can be conditioned—trained to respond in a particular way to certain stimulations. Watson gave an eleven-month-old baby named Albert a soft, furry white rat. Each time Albert tried to stroke the rat, Dr. Watson hit a metal bar with a hammer. Before long, Albert was afraid not only of white rats but also of white rabbits, white dogs, and white fur coats. He even screamed at the sight of a Santa Claus mask. B. Before the experiment, Albert was not afraid of white rats. A. Dr. Watson did not like small children. We might certainly question the way the baby was used, but the passage doesn’t give enough information for us to infer logically that Watson did not like small children. This is not a logical inference.

27 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A famous psychology experiment conducted by Dr. John B. Watson demonstrates that people, like animals, can be conditioned—trained to respond in a particular way to certain stimulations. Watson gave an eleven-month-old baby named Albert a soft, furry white rat. Each time Albert tried to stroke the rat, Dr. Watson hit a metal bar with a hammer. Before long, Albert was afraid not only of white rats but also of white rabbits, white dogs, and white fur coats. He even screamed at the sight of a Santa Claus mask. Which inference is logically based on the information provided? D. Albert had been familiar with rats before the experiment. C. Albert was afraid of unexpected loud noises.

28 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A famous psychology experiment conducted by Dr. John B. Watson demonstrates that people, like animals, can be conditioned—trained to respond in a particular way to certain stimulations. Watson gave an eleven-month-old baby named Albert a soft, furry white rat. Each time Albert tried to stroke the rat, Dr. Watson hit a metal bar with a hammer. Before long, Albert was afraid not only of white rats but also of white rabbits, white dogs, and white fur coats. He even screamed at the sight of a Santa Claus mask. D. Albert had been familiar with rats before the experiment. C. Albert was afraid of unexpected loud noises. Since the noise is what made Albert afraid of the rat, we have to infer that he was afraid of the noise. In addition, experience tells us that babies are likely to be frightened of unexpected loud noises.

29 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading A famous psychology experiment conducted by Dr. John B. Watson demonstrates that people, like animals, can be conditioned—trained to respond in a particular way to certain stimulations. Watson gave an eleven-month-old baby named Albert a soft, furry white rat. Each time Albert tried to stroke the rat, Dr. Watson hit a metal bar with a hammer. Before long, Albert was afraid not only of white rats but also of white rabbits, white dogs, and white fur coats. He even screamed at the sight of a Santa Claus mask. C. Albert was afraid of unexpected loud noises. D. Albert had been familiar with rats before the experiment. The passage gives no clues about Albert’s having previous experience with rats.

30 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading As much as possible, base your inferences on the facts. 1 Never lose sight of the available information. Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading

31 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading For instance, in the paragraph about Watson’s experiment, we are told, “Albert tried to stroke the rat.” On the basis of that fact, we can readily conclude that the baby had no fear of rats. 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading A famous psychology experiment conducted by Dr. John B. Watson demonstrates that people, like animals, can be conditioned—trained to respond in a particular way to certain stimulations. Watson gave an eleven-month-old baby named Albert a soft, furry white rat. Each time Albert tried to stroke the rat, Dr. Watson hit a metal bar with a hammer. Before long, Albert was afraid not only of white rats but also of white rabbits, white dogs, and white fur coats. He even screamed at the sight of a Santa Claus mask.

32 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading Background Information and Experience Available Information Inference 2 Use your background information and experience to help you in making inferences.

33 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading 2 Use your background information and experience to help you in making inferences. Experience Babies don’t like unexpected loud noises. Our understanding and experience with babies, for example, help us realize that babies are frightened of unexpected loud noises.

34 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading 2 Use your background information and experience to help you in making inferences. Experience Babies don’t like unexpected loud noises. Available Information Albert is a baby. Dr. Watson creates unexpected loud noises. Watson gave an eleven-month-old baby named Albert a soft, furry white rat. Each time Albert tried to stroke the rat, Dr. Watson hit a metal bar with a hammer.

35 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading 2 Use your background information and experience to help you in making inferences. Experience Babies don’t like unexpected loud noises. Available Information Watson gave an eleven-month-old baby named Albert a soft, furry white rat. Each time Albert tried to stroke the rat, Dr. Watson hit a metal bar with a hammer. Albert was frightened of unexpected loud noises. Inference

36 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Reading 1 Never lose sight of the available information. / Guidelines for Making Inferences in Reading 2 Use your background information and experience to help you in making inferences. Instead, consider all of the facts of a case and all the possible explanations. 3 Consider the alternatives. Don’t simply accept the first inference that comes to mind.

37 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Literature Inferences are very important in reading literature. Writers of factual material usually state directly much of what they mean. Creative writers, however, often provide verbal pictures that show what they mean. Factual Material Point directly stated Creative Material Point must be inferred

38 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Literature A nonfiction writer might write: A man got angry at the person using a cell phone in the theater. But a novelist might write this: Thomas turned to face the laughing red-haired girl sitting behind him in the theater. A vein on his forehead was throbbing. “Would you mind very much turning off that cell phone?” he hissed. “A few of us are here to actually see the movie.”

39 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Literature Rather than merely stating that Thomas was angry, the author shows the anger with vivid details.

40 Thomas turned to face the laughing red-haired girl sitting behind him in the theater. A vein on his forehead was throbbing. “Would you mind very much turning off that cell phone?” he hissed. “A few of us are here to actually see the movie.” CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Literature To get the most out of literature, you must often infer meanings. Your may have inferred, for example, that the laughing girl is insensitive to the rights of others in the theater.

41 Thomas turned to face the laughing red-haired girl sitting behind him in the theater. A vein on his forehead was throbbing. “Would you mind very much turning off that cell phone?” he hissed. “A few of us are here to actually see the movie.” CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Literature You could also have concluded that Thomas has probably been waiting a while for her to quiet down, but she has not, and his temper is now boiling.

42 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Literature Poetry, especially, by its nature implies much of its meaning. Poets often imply their meanings through comparisons. For example, Emily Dickinson begins one of her poems with the following lines: Hope is the thing with feathers That perches in the soul, And sings the tune without the words, And never stops at all....

43 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Literature Here, Dickinson uses a figure of speech known as a metaphor, comparing hope to a singing bird. The comparison implies, among other things, that hope is a sweet and welcome thing. Hope is the thing with feathers That perches in the soul, And sings the tune without the words, And never stops at all....

44 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Tables and Graphs At the beginning of this presentation, you made inferences about a picture—this cartoon of the couple outside a restaurant: Other “pictures” that require inferences are tables and graphs.

45 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables Tables and graphs combine words with visual representations. To infer the ideas presented in tables and graphs, you must consider all the information presented.

46 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables Steps in Reading a Graph or Table Following a few simple steps will help you find and make sense of the information in a table or graph.

47 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables / Steps in Reading a Graph or Table

48 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables / Steps in Reading a Graph or Table 1 Read the title. It will tell you what the table or graph is showing in general.

49 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables / Steps in Reading a Graph or Table 1 Read the title. What is the title of this graph?

50 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables / Steps in Reading a Graph or Table 2 Check the source. At the bottom of a table or graph, you will usually find the source of the information, an indication of the reliability of its material.

51 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables / Steps in Reading a Graph or Table 2 Check the source. What is the source of this graph?

52 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables / Steps in Reading a Graph or Table 3 Read any labels or captions at the top, the side, or underneath. These tell exactly what each column, line, bar, number, or other item represents. Label 1 Label 3 Label 2

53 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables / Steps in Reading a Graph or Table Which types of work does the graph cover?

54 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables / Steps in Reading a Graph or Table 1 Read the title. 2 Check the source. 3 Read any labels or captions. Once you have taken the above steps, you are ready to infer from the graph or table whatever information you seek from it.

55 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables Based on the information in the graph, which statement is a logical inference? B. Before 1900, farmers made up the smallest percentage of workers. A. The work force of 1900 was very different from the work force of today.

56 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables B. Before 1900, farmers made up the smallest percentage of workers. At the extreme left side of the graph, which represents 1900, the lowest of the three horizontal lines is for white-collar workers, not farmers. White-collar Farmers

57 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables B. Before 1900, farmers made up the smallest percentage of workers. At the extreme left side of the graph, which represents 1900, the lowest of the three horizontal lines is for white-collar workers, not farmers. So we can infer that for at least a short time before 1900, white-collar workers probably made up the smallest percentage of the work force. White-collar Farmers

58 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables B. Before 1900, farmers made up the smallest percentage of workers. At the extreme left side of the graph, which represents 1900, the lowest of the three horizontal lines is for white-collar workers, not farmers. So we can infer that for at least a short time before 1900, white-collar workers probably made up the smallest percentage of the work force. White-collar Farmers Statement A is not a logical inference.

59 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables A. The work force of 1900 was very different from the work force of today. The movement of the three horizontal lines across the graph shows a significant change in the U.S. work force since 1900, with farmers and blue-collar workers decreasing sharply and white-collar workers rising strongly. Statement A is a logical inference.

60 CHAPTER 7 Inferences Inferences in Graphs and Tables The work force of 1900 was very different from the work force of today. Again, we have made a leap from information presented directly to an idea that is not presented directly.

61 CHAPTER 7 Inferences


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