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CLIMATE CHANGES AND MOUNTAINS Giovanni Kappenberger MeteoSwiss CH-6605 Locarno Monti Switzerland Roma, November 16th 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "CLIMATE CHANGES AND MOUNTAINS Giovanni Kappenberger MeteoSwiss CH-6605 Locarno Monti Switzerland Roma, November 16th 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 CLIMATE CHANGES AND MOUNTAINS Giovanni Kappenberger MeteoSwiss CH-6605 Locarno Monti Switzerland Roma, November 16th 2005

2 CLIMATE CHANGES AND MOUNTAINS Glaciers: Indicators of climatic changes 1. ARCTIC 2. ALPS 3. HIMALAYA Paradies Glacier and Adula GR/TI-Switzerland, 1930 A.Gansser and 2001 G.Kappenberger

3 1. ARCTIC Coburg Island and Pond Inlet, CA 1975 next picture 1975

4 Coburg Island, North Water, CDN Coburg Island Laika Ice cap LANDSAT

5 Laika ice cap and Laika glacier, 1971

6 Laika Glacier 2005, and 1971 Earth-google, 2005 Laika Glacier under a thin Ac layer

7 Laika Glacier 2005 and before, in 1971 Earth-google, 2005 Coast line

8 Pond Inlet, summer precipitation Mising coloumn = missing data

9 Pond Inlet, summer temperature

10 Consequences of a warming Arctic? Numerous!

11 2. ALPS Basodino glacier, mass balance palina 1 2 fascia 3 4 5

12 Basodino glacier, mass balance winter (blue) summer (red) and yearly mass balance -3 m water eq. Cumulated mass balance

13 Athmospheric summer warming over Milan In half a century the 5 summer months, May to September, show an increasing sum of positive temperature values at 700 hPa from about 300 to 450 degrees. This corresponds to 30 degrees a month, or one degree a day. - Climbing of zero degree line: 150 to 200 m

14 Temperature trend in the Swiss Alps, Säntis 2500 m

15 Time-hight section of relative decadal Swiss snow day trends in %/year SNOW TREND Blue: positive trends, red: negative trends. Filled circles with black border show a significant trend. Scherrer 2004

16 Loss of snow and glaciers, what can we do? Andermatt Verbier

17 Flood in the Alps in August 2005 During the „multi-secular event“ rain fell up to 3400 m and found a lot of debris in the mountains, due to: - glacial retreat - ice exposure - retreating permafrost Heavy precipitation hit the northen Swiss Alps, August Engadina Bassa, GR Brienz, BE

18 Permafrost in the Swiss Alps - PERMOS Temperature evolution of permafrost Murtel-Corvatch, 11.5 m deep, 15 years of data C.Roth.

19 Changes: Flowering of “anemone bianca” march Wood anemone Anemone nemorosa L.

20 Change in the alpine Flora On 10 summits of the Bernina region GR, Swiss Alps Uni Zürich and Hannover, October 2005 (AP) 3262 m 2959 m Ca More then a doubling of the number of species - Acceleration of the increasing amount of species

21 Climbing vegetation ! Treeline –Onsernone: 2000m. Forest limit

22 Climbing vegetation ! Climbing trees ! Treeline: 2000 m. Forest limit Summer 2005: in the Onsernone TI/CH Larix decidua was found at 2300 m

23 Change of animals behavior! Marmot travels up the Basodino glacier, on May 18th 2005, during 2 h, from 2400 to 3150 m

24 NOAA, Everest HIMALAYA

25 Accumulation; yearly layers Gangchenpo,

26 Yala glacier, 5200 m, 1991 and 1992 Sampel site and results

27 Langtang, Lirung Glacier and Yala Glacier L: Lirung and Y: Yala Glacier. Ky: Kyangjing L Y Ky Samples 1992

28 Langtang-Lirung Glacier, surface lowering Reference: Intersection of near moraine and far mountain. Lowering of glacier surface about 5 m in one year Picture of 1992, with references to 91

29 Langtang, Kyangjing 3900 m DHM weather station Kyangiing Glaciological work

30 DHM Temperature and precipitation trend al KTM

31 Temperature evolution in Nepal (DHM) Shresta, 1999

32 : The atmosphere in summer on the southern side of the Himalaya

33 Warming of the atmosphere in summer on the southern side of the Himalaya Each point is the monthly mean of the zero degree hight of the New Delhi 00 utc sounding

34 Radiosond and atmospheric warming - In 30 years the zero degree line climbed in summer about 100 to 200 m, in June more than 300 m - Difficulties in evaluating possible sistematic error, (resulting slope could be larger)

35 Changes in the circulation? in the convection? Possible changes in the dinamic of local winds and convective clouds. Langtang region. Kappenberger et al 1993

36 A recent extreme event? Big avalanche on Mt. Kangru, 20 October 2005 K: Mt. Kangru POK: Pokhara B: Bhairahawa K B

37 The storm of 20th Oct. 2005: was it an extrem one? K: Mt. Kangru P: Pokhara B: Bhairahawa K P B

38 Extreme precipitation events on high mountains ??? Was the recent avalanche accident in the Annapurna region of Nepal (20th Oct. 05) a consequence of an exeptional storm ??? Avalanche at Tilicho Peak. 29th Oct Same region, exactly 25 y earlier

39 Tilicho Peak, 7132 m, Annapurna region Ice avalanche: Picture sequence: 1. from the side By G.Kappenberger And 2. From the front By M.Braud 1 2

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46 Manaslu, center and Pisang P. left. Mt. Kangru to the left

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48 Base Camp

49 From the Base Camp: by M.Braun

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53 A few minutes after the avalanche

54 CLIMATE CHANGES AND MOUNTAINS SUMMARY -Three different mountain regions, Arctic, Alps and Himalaya show a strong glacier retreat due to: - atmospheric warming with warmer and longer summers. - zero degree line and snow line up by 100 to 300 m in the last decades. - precipitations show a big and increesing variability, also because of athmospheric circulation. Recent events (Swiss Alps and Nepal Himalaya) remembre us that heavy precipitation can hit persons and properties, in the mountains and in the lowland. - CHANGES in the mountains environment are of a wide range. They concern an enormous spectrum of fields. Only a very few (personal) exemples (mainly in the glaciological field) have been presented.

55 CLIMATE CHANGES AND MOUNTAINS THE END THANK YOU Paradies Glacier and Adula GR/TI-Switzerland, 1930 A.Gansser and 2001 G.Kappenberger

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58 Summer temperature at Grand St Bernard

59 Permafrost surface: warming of the soil

60 Early ice exposure Griesglacer, August 2003 Foto: F. Funk-Salamì Extreeme retreat of glaciers

61 Cumulated massbalance since 1960 maximum loss in Cumulated massbalance (m WE) In one summer loss of 3% of the icevolume 2002 Daten: SANW/VAW

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