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Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance. Standard(s) and EQs SSWH9 The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation. EQ:

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Presentation on theme: "Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance. Standard(s) and EQs SSWH9 The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation. EQ:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance

2 Standard(s) and EQs SSWH9 The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation. EQ: What factors led to Italy being the birthplace of the Renaissance?

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4 Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance The word Renaissance means “rebirth.” The word Renaissance means “rebirth.” Occurred between 1300 and Occurred between 1300 and Began in Northern Italy (a natural gateway between east and west) and spread to the rest of Europe. Began in Northern Italy (a natural gateway between east and west) and spread to the rest of Europe. Revival of the classical traditions of the Greeks and Romans. Revival of the classical traditions of the Greeks and Romans.

5 Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy? Italy had a tremendous amount of overseas trade. Italy had a tremendous amount of overseas trade. Thriving cities (urban areas where ideas can be freely shared). Thriving cities (urban areas where ideas can be freely shared). There was a wealthy merchant class as a result of new banking and manufacturing. There was a wealthy merchant class as a result of new banking and manufacturing. Access to the classical heritage of Greece and Rome Access to the classical heritage of Greece and Rome

6 Characteristics of the Renaissance The Renaissance was an age of recovery from disasters of the 14th century. (Black Death) The Renaissance was an age of recovery from disasters of the 14th century. (Black Death) Challenged medieval intellectual values and styles. Challenged medieval intellectual values and styles.

7 As a result of this new view of human beings, people began to place an emphasis on individual ability. As a result of this new view of human beings, people began to place an emphasis on individual ability. Cultural reawakening. Cultural reawakening. Society focused on the secular or worldly rather than the spiritual Society focused on the secular or worldly rather than the spiritual

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9 The Italian States The major Italian city-states were Milan, Venice, and Florence. The major Italian city-states were Milan, Venice, and Florence. Italian traders conducted business with merchants from the Islamic world to as far away as England and the Netherlands. Italian traders conducted business with merchants from the Islamic world to as far away as England and the Netherlands. Milan was the richest of the trading cities. Milan was the richest of the trading cities. All three major city-states were run by powerful merchant/aristocrat families. All three major city-states were run by powerful merchant/aristocrat families.

10 The Medici Family Banking family who ruled the city-state of Florence. Banking family who ruled the city-state of Florence. Cosimo de Medici won control of the government by giving large loans to the ruling council. Cosimo de Medici won control of the government by giving large loans to the ruling council. Lorenzo the Magnificent ruled following his father’s death as a dictator but kept up the appearance of an elected government. Lorenzo the Magnificent ruled following his father’s death as a dictator but kept up the appearance of an elected government.

11 Humanism An intellectual movement based upon the study of the classics of Greece and Rome. An intellectual movement based upon the study of the classics of Greece and Rome. Focused on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor. Emphasized human potential and achievements Focused on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor. Emphasized human potential and achievements Humanists studied the liberal arts -- grammar, rhetoric, poetry and philosophy. Humanists studied the liberal arts -- grammar, rhetoric, poetry and philosophy.

12 Encouraged citizens to take an active role in their government. Encouraged citizens to take an active role in their government. Had a profound effect on education. Had a profound effect on education. Renaissance writers introduced the idea that educated people were expected strive to master almost every area of study. A man who excelled in many fields was praised as a “universal man.” Later ages called such people “Renaissance men.”

13 Standard(s) SSWH9 The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation. Why Florence? Who were Machiavelli, Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo? What is humanism? EQ: In what ways did art change during the Renaissance? Vocabulary: perspective, vernacular, secular, patron, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael Sanzio, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Machiavelli, utopia Warm Up: Interact with History p. 470

14 Literature Many authors choose to abandon the use of Latin in literature and focused on the local vernacular to write their works. Many authors choose to abandon the use of Latin in literature and focused on the local vernacular to write their works. In the 14th century Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer helped make vernacular language more popular. In the 14th century Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer helped make vernacular language more popular. The Divine Comedy The Divine Comedy Guide was Roman classical poet Virgil Guide was Roman classical poet Virgil Greco-Roman themes & writing in the vernacular Greco-Roman themes & writing in the vernacular

15 Francesco Petrarch “Father of Humanism” “Father of Humanism” Explored the glories and personal achievements of man Explored the glories and personal achievements of man Emphasized secular not religious subjects Emphasized secular not religious subjects Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales

16 Education in the Renaissance The Renaissance saw the development of printing in Europe. Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press played a major role in the advancement of education during the Era. The printing of books encouraged scholarly research and t he desire to gain knowledge.

17 Art and Architecture Stressed more secular subjects in literature & art Stressed more secular subjects in literature & art More realistic portrayals of people & nature More realistic portrayals of people & nature Painting turned to realism from medieval formalism and stiffness Painting turned to realism from medieval formalism and stiffness

18 Led by painter Giotto Led by painter Giotto New Techniques New Techniques Perspective Perspective New colors New colors Oil paints (more luster to paintings) Oil paints (more luster to paintings) Return to Greco-Roman styles Return to Greco-Roman styles

19 Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci Personified the ideal “Renaissance Man” Personified the ideal “Renaissance Man” Not only a jack-of-all-trades, but also a master of many Not only a jack-of-all-trades, but also a master of many Military engineer, anatomist, botanist Military engineer, anatomist, botanist Self-taught Self-taught

20 Raphael Raphael Famous for his many paintings of the Madonna Famous for his many paintings of the Madonna Fresco The School of Athens Fresco The School of Athens Depicts Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophy and science Depicts Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophy and science

21 Michelangelo Michelangelo 4 different popes commissioned works by him 4 different popes commissioned works by him Sistine Chapel commissioned by Pope Julius II Sistine Chapel commissioned by Pope Julius II 10,000 square feet, 343 figures (1/2 of which are 10 feet in height) 10,000 square feet, 343 figures (1/2 of which are 10 feet in height) Took 4 years to complete Took 4 years to complete

22 David David 18 feet tall 18 feet tall Perfect example of the Renaissance artists devotion to harmony, symmetry, and proportion Perfect example of the Renaissance artists devotion to harmony, symmetry, and proportion

23 Architecture Gothic Style gave way to Greco-Roman style incorporating domes & columns Gothic Style gave way to Greco-Roman style incorporating domes & columns Brunelleschi Brunelleschi Florence Cathedral considered pinnacle of Renaissance architecture Florence Cathedral considered pinnacle of Renaissance architecture Modified a design to support the expansive weight of the dome Modified a design to support the expansive weight of the dome

24 Patronage Patrons Patrons Wealthy and educated merchants Wealthy and educated merchants Commissioned art & sponsored cultural activities Commissioned art & sponsored cultural activities Cosimo de Medici and his son Lorenzo Cosimo de Medici and his son Lorenzo Greatest of all patrons Greatest of all patrons Church also source of commissions Church also source of commissions Papacy launched a building program culminating in St. Peter’s Basilica Papacy launched a building program culminating in St. Peter’s Basilica

25 Renaissance and Politics Niccolo Machiavelli Niccolo Machiavelli Served as a diplomat for Florence. Served as a diplomat for Florence. Wrote The Prince on political power. Wrote The Prince on political power. Emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power Emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power The end justifies the means The end justifies the means Being feared is more important than being loved if a leader has to choose between the two. Being feared is more important than being loved if a leader has to choose between the two. Many writers of the time stressed ethics and Christian moral principles. Many writers of the time stressed ethics and Christian moral principles. Machiavelli was the first to abandon morality as the basis of political activity. Machiavelli was the first to abandon morality as the basis of political activity. Concerned with being politically effective rather than morally right.

26 Being feared is more important than being loved if a leader has to choose between the two. Being feared is more important than being loved if a leader has to choose between the two. Many writers of the time stressed ethics and Christian moral principles. Many writers of the time stressed ethics and Christian moral principles. Machiavelli was the first to abandon morality as the basis of political activity. Machiavelli was the first to abandon morality as the basis of political activity. Concerned with being politically effective rather than morally right.


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