4 Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance The word Renaissance means “rebirth.”Occurred between 1300 andBegan in Northern Italy (a natural gateway between east and west) and spread to the rest of Europe.Revival of the classical traditions of the Greeks and Romans.
5 Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy? Italy had a tremendous amount of overseas trade.Thriving cities (urban areas where ideas can be freely shared).There was a wealthy merchant class as a result of new banking and manufacturing.Access to the classical heritage of Greece and Rome
6 Characteristics of the Renaissance The Renaissance was an age of recovery from disasters of the 14th century. (Black Death)Challenged medieval intellectual values and styles.
7 As a result of this new view of human beings, people began to place an emphasis on individual ability.Cultural reawakening.Society focused on the secular or worldly rather than the spiritual
9 The Italian StatesThe major Italian city-states were Milan, Venice, and Florence.Italian traders conducted business with merchants from the Islamic world to as far away as England and the Netherlands.Milan was the richest of the trading cities.All three major city-states were run by powerful merchant/aristocrat families.
10 The Medici Family Banking family who ruled the city-state of Florence. Cosimo de Medici won control of the government by giving large loans to the ruling council.Lorenzo the Magnificent ruled following his father’s death as a dictator but kept up the appearance of an elected government.
11 HumanismAn intellectual movement based upon the study of the classics of Greece and Rome.Focused on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor. Emphasized human potential and achievementsHumanists studied the liberal arts -- grammar, rhetoric, poetry and philosophy.
12 Encouraged citizens to take an active role in their government. Had a profound effect on education.Renaissance writers introduced the idea that educated people were expected strive to master almost every area of study.A man who excelled in many fields was praised as a “universal man.” Later ages called such people “Renaissance men.”
13 Standard(s)SSWH9 The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation.Why Florence?Who were Machiavelli, Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo?What is humanism?EQ: In what ways did art change during the Renaissance?Vocabulary: perspective, vernacular, secular, patron, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael Sanzio, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Machiavelli, utopiaWarm Up: Interact with History p. 470
14 LiteratureMany authors choose to abandon the use of Latin in literature and focused on the local vernacular to write their works.In the 14th century Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer helped make vernacular language more popular.The Divine ComedyGuide was Roman classical poet VirgilGreco-Roman themes & writing in the vernacular
15 Francesco Petrarch“Father of Humanism”Explored the glories and personal achievements of manEmphasized secular not religious subjectsChaucer: The Canterbury Tales
16 Education in the Renaissance The Renaissance saw the development of printing in Europe.Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press played a major role in the advancement of education during the Era.The printing of books encouraged scholarly research and the desire to gain knowledge.
17 Art and ArchitectureStressed more secular subjects in literature & artMore realistic portrayals of people & naturePainting turned to realism from medieval formalism and stiffness
18 Led by painter GiottoNew TechniquesPerspectiveNew colorsOil paints (more luster to paintings)Return to Greco-Roman styles
19 Leonardo da Vinci Personified the ideal “Renaissance Man” Not only a jack-of-all-trades, but also a master of manyMilitary engineer, anatomist, botanistSelf-taught
20 Raphael Famous for his many paintings of the Madonna Fresco The School of AthensDepicts Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophy and science
21 Michelangelo 4 different popes commissioned works by him Sistine Chapel commissioned by Pope Julius II10,000 square feet, 343 figures (1/2 of which are 10 feet in height)Took 4 years to complete
22 David18 feet tallPerfect example of the Renaissance artists devotion to harmony, symmetry, and proportion
23 ArchitectureGothic Style gave way to Greco-Roman style incorporating domes & columnsBrunelleschiFlorence Cathedral considered pinnacle of Renaissance architectureModified a design to support the expansive weight of the dome
24 Patronage Patrons Wealthy and educated merchants Commissioned art & sponsored cultural activitiesCosimo de Medici and his son LorenzoGreatest of all patronsChurch also source of commissionsPapacy launched a building program culminating in St. Peter’s Basilica
25 Renaissance and Politics Niccolo MachiavelliServed as a diplomat for Florence.Wrote The Prince on political power.Emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain powerThe end justifies the meansBeing feared is more important than being loved if a leader has to choose between the two.Many writers of the time stressed ethics and Christian moral principles.Machiavelli was the first to abandon morality as the basis of political activity.Concerned with being politically effective rather than morally right.
26 Being feared is more important than being loved if a leader has to choose between the two. Many writers of the time stressed ethics and Christian moral principles.Machiavelli was the first to abandon morality as the basis of political activity.Concerned with being politically effective rather than morally right.