Presentation on theme: "ITALY AND THE RENAISSANCE"— Presentation transcript:
1ITALY AND THE RENAISSANCE The Birth of Venus, Botticelli (1485)
2What was the Renaissance? The term means “rebirth” – in this case, the term refers to a revival of art and learning.The Renaissance originated in Northern Italy and then spread throughout Europe.
3Why Italy?Italy had 3 advantages that made it the birthplace of the Renaissance.1. thriving cities2. a wealthy merchant class3. the classical heritage of Greece and Rome.
4City-StatesOverseas trade led to the growth of many large city-states in Northern Italy, making this part of the country predominately urban.The bubonic plague caused labor shortages which pushed up wages. With few opportunities to expand business, merchants began to pursue art.
5MerchantsA wealthy merchant class developed in each Italian city-state.In Florence, a powerful banking family called the Medici came to power.
7Followed his grandfather as ruler of Florence. Lorenzo de MediciFollowed his grandfather as ruler of Florence.
8Heritage of Greece & Rome 1. Artists drew inspiration from the ruins of ancient Rome.2. Scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts.3. Greek manuscripts were also in Rome after being relocated from Constantinople.
9Renaissance ValuesHumanism: an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements.Represented a move away from the exclusively Christian values of the Medieval era.
10Renaissance Values (cont’d) Secularism: a focus on the worldly rather than the spiritual and concerned with the here and now.Led to an emphasis on worldly pleasure, such as material luxuries, music and food.
11Renaissance Values (cont’d) The Renaissance Man:All educated people were expected to master almost every area of study, such as dancing, music, art, poetry, horseback riding, wrestling, the classics, etc.
12Renaissance Values (cont’d) The Renaissance Woman:Well-educated but non-political.Expected to inspire rather than create art.
13Renaissance Art Renaissance art involved stylistic change. 1. Emphasized realism.2. More of a secular focus, utilizing Greek and Roman rather than spiritual subjects.3. Used perspective, or 3-D painting.
14Michelangelo Painter, sculptor, architect and poet. Most famous for the way he portrayed the human body as influenced by classical art.
27Renaissance Literature Writers produced works that were secular as well as religious.Writers began to use vernacular languages to express their ideas. This refers to their native language, rather than Latin.Writers focused on the individuality of their subjects.
28Dante Wrote The Divine Comedy. Widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature, the first great work of the Renaissance and one of the greatest works of world literature.Tells the story of visiting hell from the first person.
30Petrarch One of the earliest and most influential humanists. Great poet known for writing sonnets (or 14 line poems) to an unknown woman named Laura.
31Machiavelli Most famous for writing The Prince. This book gives advice on how a ruler can gain and maintain power.Argues that most people are selfish and corrupt.Focuses on what was effective rather than moral; advocated lying if effective.
32Printing Spreads Ideas The Chinese first used block printing and the Europeans would expand on thisThis process worked, but too slow to keep up with the demand for ideasAbout 1440 Johann Gutenberg invented a printing press with movable typeBooks could now be made fast and cheapThe fist book printed was the Gutenberg Bible
33Before the press 5 months to copy a book by hand After the press 5 months to print 500 books
34Review: Humanism What are the main characteristics of humanism? Affirmed the worth of the human.Emphasized the self and individuality.Valued the secular rather than the spiritual.Optimistic about the potential for social improvement.
35The Northern Renaissance Merchants, artists, scholars came to Italy from northern Europe and were impressed with what they saw from the Italian RenaissanceAs a result, the northern Renaissance developed its own character, mainly realism
36Albrecht DürerGermanKnown for woodcarvings and engravings
37Pieter Bruegel and Jan van Eyck Flemish painters (from Netherlands)Van Eyck used oil-based paints to show layers and subtlety (i.e. jewels)Bruegel showed scenes from everyday peasant life (Peasant Wedding)
39Northern Writers: Christian Humanists Critical of the Church and wanted to reform societyErasmus (Netherlands) and Thomas More (England) are two best examplesErasmus’ The Praise of FollyMore’s Utopia
40Legacy of the Renaissance Marked a break in religious focus of Middle AgesBelief that the individual played a role in the rise of democratic beliefsArts: writers (vernacular) and painters (realism and secularism)Society: learning and rise in literacyChurch’s power declines and monarchs’ risesPaved the way for nation states